Vol 7, No 1 (2024)

The dynamic field of polymer science and engineering continues to advance at a rapid pace, and with it, the integration of these versatile materials in biomedical applications is expected to expand even further. This issue of the Journal of Polymer Science and Engineering showcases the remarkable advancements taking place in the utilization of cutting-edge polymeric and composite materials for biomedical applications. The papers included in this edition explore a diverse range of groundbreaking research that harnesses the unique properties, functionality, and versatility of these cutting-edge materials to address critical challenges across the healthcare and medical industries. The insights presented here underscore the transformative potential of polymer-based solutions to enhance patient care, improve therapeutic outcomes, and drive the development of next-generation biomaterials and medical technologies.

Table of Contents

Open Access
Article
Article ID: 4219
PDF
by Simon Ejededawe Igberaese
J. Polym. Sci. Eng. 2024 , 7(1);    124 Views
Abstract There are a number of input parameters that are considered in relation to the stimulatory possibility of constructing a Liquid Metal Battery (LMB). This paper talks about the modeling approach possible for use in LMB research work. Equivalent Circuit Modeling (ECM) is the most common method used to analyze input data or parameters. In analyzing some of the basic elements, such as electrical capacitance, electrical resistance, open circuit voltage, terminal voltage, temperature, time response, time constants, State of Charge (SOC), etc., the cell impedance could be calculated by predicting the system elements that would play key roles in the determination of the parameter identification method for the battery’s Equivalent Circuit Model. Secondly, each element in the model has a known behaviour, which mainly depends on the element type and the values of the parameters that characterize that element. In EIS software, the Graphical Model Editor could be used to build an equivalent circuit model, or the befitting model could be carefully and properly selected. Thirdly, in fitting the Equivalent Circuit Model (ECM) to the initial data or parameters, one must take note that the parameters are strongly dependent on temperature, heat, and losses. Such are: the Open Circuit Voltage (OCV), which is strongly dependent on the temperature, the loss processes depend on temperature; losses produced by the loss processes are dissipated as heat energy; the heat generated or consumed by the electrochemical reactions during normal operation has a defined temperature; and a system with a defined temperature window with safe, stable, and efficient operation is achievable. At the end of this research, the simulation of Lithium (Li) and Cadmium (Cd) was found to be in the proportion of 67:33, which is used to determine the strength of the reactivity of the metals. It can be informed in this article that the Bi and Li chemical compositions of the metals are equal to 49 for Li and 51 for Bismuth, which makes the overall reactivity very high, which could be used for LMB development.
show more
Open Access
Article
Article ID: 4070
PDF
by Nathan Grantham-Coogan, Craig Tilton, Helio Matos, Arun Shukla
J. Polym. Sci. Eng. 2024 , 7(1);    438 Views
Abstract This study experimentally investigates the failure behavior of 3D-printed polymer tubes during underwater implosion. Implosion is a prevalent failure mechanism in the underwater domain, and the adaptation of new technology, such as 3D printing, allows for the rapid manufacturing of pressure vessels with complex geometries. This study analyzes the failure performance of 3D-printed polymer structures to aid in the future development of 3D-printed pressure vessels. The 3D-printed tube specimens analyzed were fabricated using digital light synthesis (DLS) technology and included four different case geometries. The geometries consist of three cylindrical shells of varying diameter and thickness and one double hull structure with a cylindrical gyroid core filler. These specimens were submerged in a pressure vessel and subjected to increasing hydrostatic pressure until implosion failure occurred. High-speed photography and Digital Image Correlation (DIC) were employed to capture the collapse event and obtain full-field displacements. Local dynamic pressure histories during failure were recorded using piezoelectric transducers. The findings highlight that the 3D-printed polymers underwent significant deformation and failed at localized points due to material failure. The fracture of the specimens during failure introduced inconsistencies in pressure and impulse data due to the chaotic nature of the failure. Notably, the energy flow analysis revealed that the proportion of energy released via the pressure pulse was lower than in traditional aluminum structures. These findings contribute to our understanding of the behavior of 3D-printed polymers under hydrostatic pressure conditions.
show more
Open Access
Article
Article ID: 4471
PDF
by Dustin Pomary, Belinda Selase Korkor, Bernard Owusu Asimeng, Solomon Kingsley Katu, Lily Paemka, Vitus Atanga. Apalangya, Bismark Mensah, E. Johan Foster, Elvis K. Tiburu
J. Polym. Sci. Eng. 2024 , 7(1);    287 Views
Abstract Achatina achatina (AA) is a rich source of collagen due to its large size, but it is underutilized. Type I collagen was extracted from AA to serve as an alternative to existing collagen sources. The collagen was extracted at varying alkaline and temperature conditions to determine the optimal parameters that would give a high yield of acid-soluble collagen. The extracted collagen was characterised using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to confirm the integrity and purity of the extracted collagen. The type of collagen was determined using sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The α-1, α-2, and dimer electrophoresis bands confirmed that the collagen is type I, and the XRD data supported the findings. The highest collagen yield was obtained at 4 ℃ for 48 h, which decreased with increasing temperature due to the instability of the protein in acid at high temperatures. A cytotoxicity test was conducted using an Alamar blue assay. The AA collagen-treated normal prostate cell line (PNT2) showed no significant difference from the untreated control cells. The high-quality type I collagen extracted from AA has the potential for biomedical and other industrial applications.
show more
Open Access
Article
Article ID: 4510
PDF
by Kohobhange Karunadasa, Pannilage Madhushanka, Chinthan Manoratne
J. Polym. Sci. Eng. 2024 , 7(1);    97 Views
Abstract The present study demonstrates the fabrication of heterogeneous ternary composite photocatalysts consisting of TiO 2 , kaolinite, and cement (TKCe) , which is essential to overcome the practical barriers that are inherent to currently available photocatalysts. TKCe is prepared via a cost-effective method, which involves mechanical compression and thermal activation as major fabrication steps. The c lay-cement ratio primarily determines TKCe mechanical strength and photocatalytic efficiency , where TKCe with the optimum clay-cement ratio, which is 1:1 , results in a uniform matrix with fewer surface defects. The composites that have a clay-cement ratio below or above the optimum ratio account for comparatively low mechanical strength and photocatalytic activity due to inhomogeneous surfaces with more defects, including particle agglomeration and cracks. The TKCe mechanical strength comes mainly from clay-TiO 2 interactions and TiO 2 -cement interactions. TiO 2 -cement interactions result in CaTiO 3 formation, which significantly increases matrix interactions; however, the maximum composite performance is observed at the optimum titanate level; anything above or below this level deteriorates composite performance. Over 90% degradation rates are characteristic of all TKCe, which follow pseudo-first-order kinetics in methylene blue decontamination. The highest rate constant is observed with TKCe 1 - 1, which is 1.57 h −1 and is the highest among all the binary composite photocatalyst s that were fabricated previously. The TKCe 1 - 1 accounts for the highest mechanical strength, which is 6.97 MPa, while the lowest is observed with TKCe 3 - 1, indicating that the clay-cement ratio has a direct relation to composite strength. TKCe is a potential photocatalyst that can be obtained in variable sizes and shapes, complying with real industrial wastewater treatment requirements.
show more
Open Access
Article
Article ID: 4576
PDF
by Ning Yang, Tianyu Fu
J. Polym. Sci. Eng. 2024 , 7(1);    24 Views
Abstract Accurate temperature control during the induction heating process of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) is crucial for the curing effect of the material. This paper first builds a finite element model of induction heating, which combines the actual fiber structure and resin matrix, and systematically analyzes the heating mechanism and temperature field distribution of CFRP during the heating process. Based on the temperature distribution and variation observed in the material heating process, a PID control method optimized by the sparrow search algorithm is proposed, which effectively reduces the temperature overshoot and improves the response speed. The experiment verifies the effectiveness of the algorithm in controlling the temperature of the CFRP plate during the induction heating process. This study provides an effective control strategy and research method to improve the accuracy of temperature control in the induction heating process of CFRP, which helps to improve the results in this field.
show more
Open Access
Article
Article ID: 4591
PDF
by Saad Issa Sarsam
J. Polym. Sci. Eng. 2024 , 7(1);    27 Views
Abstract The production of asphalt cement binder in Iraq is conducted through the distillation of crude oil. The byproduct of such distillation is asphalt cement, which does not practice any further processing. Further processing of the binder is considered vital to controlling its physical properties and chemical composition. The implementation of bio-modifiers before using such asphalt cement binder for paving work is a sound practice to enhance its sustainability and reserve the required rheological properties. In the present study, the asphalt cement binder was modified by the implementation of extender oil (used diesel engine oil) and scrap tire rubber. The aim of this work is to improve and provide a sustainable and proper rheological quality of the binder for paving work. Various percentages of scrap tire rubber and extender oil have been tried to optimize the modifiers that can exhibit a suitable control on the required rheological properties of the asphalt binder, such as the stiffness modulus, its temperature susceptibility in terms of penetration index, and penetration viscosity number, and the temperature of the equivalent stiffness of the binder. The stiffness of asphalt cement binder was digested in hot, moderate, and cold environments. It was observed that the implementation of extender oil was able to reduce the penetration index (PI) by 36.3%, 54.5%, and 27.2% when 15%, 10%, and 5% of extender oil by weight of the mixture were added, respectively, to the control binder. The addition of scrap tire rubber to the binder-oil mixture was able to reduce the PI by up to 10% of the rubber content and exhibited further control over the temperature susceptibility of the binder. It can be revealed that the extender oil increases the negative values of penetration viscosity number (PVN), while the scrap tire rubber can improve the PVN of the binder. When a high percentage of extender oil (15%) is implemented, the stiffness of the binder declines by 50%, 90%, and 75% when the testing temperature changes from 4 to 25, and 60 ℃, respectively. It was concluded that the inclusion of 15% scrap tire rubber and 15% extender oil in the asphalt cement binder produced by Qayarah oil refinery is recommended to provide a sustainable binder for pavement, control its temperature susceptibility, and provide a binder that is less susceptible to pavement distress.
show more
Open Access
Article
Article ID: 5132
PDF
by Tatiane Zucchini de Souza, Priscila Nishizaki Borba, Bruna Fernandes Antunes, Deliane da Silva Cabral, Antonio José Felix Carvalho, Eliane Trovatti
J. Polym. Sci. Eng. 2024 , 7(1);    30 Views
Abstract Vegetable byproducts from the food and agroforestry industries are a source of several molecules and macromolecules that can find application in the development of high-value materials because of their intrinsic properties. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is found in all living systems and is widely available in nature. It is a macromolecule well known for its biological function related to carrying and transmitting genetic information. The chemical composition and arrangement of this macromolecule can generate new materials with noble properties that are still being explored for applications apart from their biological function. The purpose of this work was to study the film formation and its properties using the DNA extracted from the food industry byproducts, namely orange and banana, in order to evaluate their properties. The material was capable of forming large films with green, mild, and easy processing techniques. The films were characterized by mechanical tensile tests, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), indicating their potential as an alternative natural material for developments in composite and biomedical fields.
show more
Open Access
Article
Article ID: 5170
PDF
by Mohan Raj Krishnan, Edreese Housni Alsharaeh
J. Polym. Sci. Eng. 2024 , 7(1);    37 Views
Abstract The chemical reinforcement of sandy soils is usually carried out to improve their properties and meet specific engineering requirements. Nevertheless, conventional reinforcement agents are often expensive; the process is energy-intensive and causes serious environmental issues. Therefore, developing a cost-effective, room-temperature-based method that uses recyclable chemicals is necessary. In the current study, poly (styrene-co-methyl methacrylate) (PS-PMMA) is used as a stabilizer to reinforce sandy soil. The copolymer-reinforced sand samples were prepared using the one-step bulk polymerization method at room temperature. The mechanical strength of the copolymer-reinforced sand samples depends on the ratio of the PS-PMMA copolymer to the sand. The higher the copolymer-to-sand ratio, the higher the sample’s compressive strength. The sand (70 wt.%)-PS-PMMA (30 wt.%) sample exhibited the highest compressive strength of 1900 psi. The copolymer matrix enwraps the sand particles to form a stable structure with high compressive strengths.
show more
Open Access
Review
Article ID: 3440
PDF
by Lucky Ogheneakpobo Ejeta, Ehiaghe Agbovhimen Elimian
J. Polym. Sci. Eng. 2024 , 7(1);    259 Views
Abstract Solid waste has become a major environmental concern globally in recent years due to the tremendous increase in waste generation. However, these wastes (e.g., plastics and agro-residues) can serve as potential raw materials for the production of value-added products such as composites at low cost. The utilization of these waste materials in the composite industry is a good strategy for maintaining the sustainability of resources with economic and environmental benefits. In this report, the environmental impacts and management strategies of solid waste materials are discussed in detail. The study described the benefits of recycling and reusing solid wastes (i.e., plastic and agro-waste). The report also reviewed the emerging fabrication approaches for natural particulate hybrid nanocomposite materials. The results of this survey reveal that the fabrication techniques employed in manufacturing composite materials could significantly influence the performance of the resulting composite products. Furthermore, some key areas have been identified for further investigation. Therefore, this report is a state-of-the-art review and stands out as a guide for academics and industrialists.
show more
Open Access
Review
Article ID: 3618
PDF
by Anns Raju Reshma, M. R. Rekha
J. Polym. Sci. Eng. 2024 , 7(1);    195 Views
Abstract Recent technological advances in the fields of biomaterials and tissue engineering have spurred interest in biopolymers for various biomedical applications. The advantage of biopolymers is their favorable characteristics for these applications, among which proteins are of particular importance. Proteins are explored widely for 3D bioprinting and tissue engineering applications, wound healing, drug delivery systems, implants, etc., and the proteins mainly available include collagen, gelatin, albumin, zein, etc. Zein is a plant protein abundantly present in corn endosperm, and it is about 80% of total corn protein. It is a highly renewable source, and zein has been reported to be applicable in different industrial applications. Lately, it has gained attention in biomedical applications. This research interest in zein is on account of its biocompatibility, non-toxicity, and certain unique physico-chemical properties. Zein comes under the GRAS category and is considered safe for biomedical applications. The hydrophobic nature of this protein gives it an added advantage and has wider applications in drug delivery. This review focuses on details about zein protein, its properties, and potential applications in biomedical sectors.
show more
Open Access
Review
Article ID: 3441
PDF
by Lucky Ogheneakpobo Ejeta
J. Polym. Sci. Eng. 2024 , 7(1);    239 Views
Abstract In today’s manufacturing sector, high-quality materials that satisfy customers’ needs at a reduced cost are drawing attention in the global market. Also, as new applications are emerging, high-performance biocomposite products that complement them are required. The production of such high-performance materials requires suitable optimization techniques in the formulation/process design, not simply mixing natural fibre/filler, additives, and plastics, and characterization of the resulting biocomposites. However, a comprehensive review of the optimization strategies in biocomposite production intended for infrastructural applications is lacking. This study, therefore, presents a detailed discussion of the various optimization approaches, their strengths, and weaknesses in the formulation/process parameters of biocomposite manufacturing. The report explores the recent progress in optimization techniques in biocomposite material production to provide baseline information to researchers and industrialists in this field. Therefore, this review consolidates prior studies to explore new areas.
show more
Open Access
Review
Article ID: 4276
PDF
by Shahab Khan, Inam Ullah, Salman Khan, Sanila Ajmal, Najmus Saqib, Faizan Ur Rahman, Shahid Ali
J. Polym. Sci. Eng. 2024 , 7(1);    352 Views
Abstract This comprehensive review explores the forefront of nanohybrid materials, focusing on the integration of coordination materials in various applications, with a spotlight on their role in the development of flexible solar cells. Coordination material-based nanohybrids, characterized by their unique properties and multifunctionality, have garnered significant attention in fields ranging from catalysis and sensing to drug delivery and energy storage. The discussion investigates the synthesis methods, properties, and potential applications of these nanohybrids, underscoring their versatility in materials science. Additionally, the review investigates the integration of coordination nanohybrids in perovskite solar cells (PSCs), showcasing their ability to enhance the performance and stability of next-generation photovoltaic devices. The narrative further expands to encompass the synthesis of luminescent nanohybrids for bioimaging purposes and the development of layered, two-dimensional (2D) material-based nanostructured hybrids for energy storage and conversion. The exploration culminates in an examination of the synthesis of conductive polymer nanostructures, elucidating their potential in drug delivery systems. Last but not least, the article discusses the cutting-edge realm of flexible solar cells, emphasizing their adaptability and lightweight design. Through a systematic examination of these diverse nanohybrid materials, this review sheds light on the current state of the art, challenges, and prospects, providing valuable insights for researchers and practitioners in the fields of materials science, nanotechnology, and renewable energy.
show more
Open Access
Review
Article ID: 4496
PDF
by Shamim Ahsan, M. S. Rabbi
J. Polym. Sci. Eng. 2024 , 7(1);    319 Views
Abstract Cellulose nanocrystal, known as CNCs, is a form of material that can be produced by synthesizing carbon from naturally occurring substances, such as plants. Due to the unique properties it possesses, including a large surface area, impressive mechanical strength, and the ability to biodegrade, it draws significant attention from researchers nowadays. Several methods are available to prepare CNC, such as acid hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis, and mechanical procedures. The characteristics of CNC include X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, etc. In this article, the recent development of CNC preparation and its characterizations are thoroughly discussed. Significant breakthroughs are listed accordingly. Furthermore, a variety of CNC applications, such as paper and packaging, biological applications, energy storage, etc., are illustrated. This study demonstrates the insights gained from using CNC as a potential environmentally friendly material with remarkable properties.
show more
Open Access
Review
Article ID: 4978
PDF
by Ayesha Kausar, Ishaq Ahmad
J. Polym. Sci. Eng. 2024 , 7(1);    86 Views
Abstract Due to rising global environmental challenges, air/water pollution treatment technologies, especially membrane techniques, have been focused on. In this context, air or purification membranes have been considered effective for environmental remediation. In the field of polymeric membranes, high-performance polymer/graphene nanocomposite membranes have gained increasing research attention. The polymer/graphene nanomaterials exposed several potential benefits when processed as membranes. This review explains the utilization of polymer and graphene-derived nanocomposites towards membrane formation and water or gas separation or decontamination properties. Here, different membrane designs have been developed depending upon the polymer types (poly(vinyl alcohol), poly(vinyl chloride), poly(dimethyl siloxane), polysulfone, poly(methyl methacrylate), etc.) and graphene functionalities. Including graphene in polymers influences membrane microstructure, physical features, molecular permeability or selectivity, and separations. Polysulfone/graphene oxide nanocomposite membranes have been found to be most efficient with an enhanced rejection rate of 90%–95%, a high water flux >180 L/m 2 /h, and a desirable water contact angle for water purification purposes. For gas separation membranes, efficient membranes have been reported as polysulfone/graphene oxide and poly(dimethyl siloxane)/graphene oxide nanocomposites. In these membranes, N 2 , CO 2 , and other gases permeability has been found to be higher than even >99.9%. Similarly, higher selectivity values for gases like CO 2 /CH 4 have been observed. Thus, high-performance graphene-based nanocomposite membranes possess high potential to overcome the challenges related to water or gas molecular separations.
show more