Vol 7, No 1 (Published)

Table of Contents

Open Access
Original Research Article
Article ID: 2291
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by Rinal Dia’ul Haikal, Alwan Ziyad Marom, Muhammad Prayogie Aulia, Aulia Chintia Ambarita, Azwar Azwar, Afrilia Fahrina, Muhammad Roil Bilad, Sri Mulyati, Mehmet Emin Pasaoglu, Ismail Koyuncu, Nasrul Arahman
Appl. Chem. Eng. 2024 , 7(1);    771 Views
Abstract The development of polyethersulfone (PES) membranes to improve membrane performance can be done in various ways; one is by combining two types of additives (organic and inorganic) in one dope polymer solution. In this study, researchers analyzed the effect of combining polyethylene glycol hexadecyl ether (PEG-HE) as an organic additive and nanocarbon as an inorganic additive on the characteristics and performance of PES membranes. The membrane performance test includes analysis of pure water flux and rejection of synthetic fertilizer factory wastewater (Mg 2+ ) with a concentration of 300 ppm. The membrane characterization was carried out by analyzing the morphology of the membrane structure using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), water contact angle (WCA), porosity, and membrane pore size. Ultrafiltration experiment showed that the modified PES membrane with PEG-HE and Nanocarbon had the highest pure water flux. The most significant rejection coefficient of 96.88% was found in an ultrafiltration experiment using pure PES membranes. The characteristic of other membranes will be described in detail in this article.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
Article ID: 2284
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by Fatemeh Mollaamin, Majid Monajjemi
Appl. Chem. Eng. 2024 , 7(1);    364 Views
Abstract Al-Mg surface doped silicon, germanium and tin is theoretically studied using first-principles density functional theory (DFT) at the CAM-B3LYP/EPR-III, LANL2DZ,6-31+G(d,p) level of theory to explore the chemical adsorption and corrosion inhibition of organic carbenes through coating process. The fluctuation of NQR is estimated the inhibiting role of pyridine and its derivatives (picoline, 3-picoline,4-picoline,2,4-lutidine) for (Si, Ge, Sn)-doped Al-Mg alloy nanosheet due to concerning nitrogen in the benzene ring of related heterocyclic compounds becoming close to the monolayer nanosurface of Al-Mg-X (X = Si, Ge, Sn) nanoalloys. The NMR spectroscopy remarks that (Si, Ge, Sn)-doped Al-Mg alloy nanosheet has maximum band wavelengths approximately between 10 ppm–2000 ppm accompanying the sharpest peaks for inhibitors → Al-Mg-X which are between 10 ppm–100 ppm. IR spectroscopy has exhibited that (Si, Ge, Sn)-doped Al-Mg alloy nanosheet with the fluctuation in the frequency of intra-atomic interaction leads us to the most influence in the vicinage atoms generated due to inter-atomic interaction. The maximum IR spectrum for complexes of [inhibitor → Al-Mg-X (X = Si, Ge, Sn)] is observed in the frequency range between 500 cm −1 –3500 cm −1 . This work exhibits that proper monitoring of the coating mechanism by Langmuir adsorption can illustrate inhibiting the aluminum nanoalloys corrosion through an investigation of their structural and thermodynamic properties. This work investigates the characteristics, band structure, and projected density of state (PDOS) of Al-Mg nanoalloy doped with Si, Ge, Sn elements for increasing the corrosion inhibition of the surface through adsorption of organic molecules of carbenes in the surface coatings process. This article can be helpful in a range of applications which uses Al-Mg alloy for the study of energy storage and adsorption of air pollution or water contamination. Many different approaches such as surface coatings, alloying and doping can be adopted to protect the surface.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
Article ID: 2342
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by Akhtarul Islam, Md. Ferdous Rahman, A. K. M. Mahmudul Haque, Polash Ahmed, Md. Hasan Ali, Md. Rasidul Islam, M. Khalid Hossain, Abu Bakar Md. Ismail
Appl. Chem. Eng. 2024 , 7(1);    358 Views
Abstract Upazilla Health Complex (UHC) offers the primary level health care facilities for rural communities. Every day thousands of patients come here for health care. The Health complex needs 24 hours electric supply. The national Grid cannot provide continuous electricity supply. Rural areas face various disturbance such as load shedding, blackouts problems and bad weather situation. In this paper, we report on the techno-economic assessment of net metering based On-grid photovoltaic system for Kaunia Upazila Health Complex in Rangpur District, Bangladesh. The analysis is based on the grid-connected photovoltaic system without battery storage. The HOMER software is used to obtain the overall analysis and the load study is carried out by HOMER powering tools. It suggests that the selected health complex requires a 34 kW PV system. The system’s net present cost (NPC) and the levelized cost of energy (COE) are $35,524 and $0.048 respectively. In this proposed system, renewable energy provides 99% of the total power requirements, while the generator and grid provide only 1%. The system produces 53,736 kWh a year of electricity where the system’s surplus electricity is 3226 kWh per year which can be sold to the national grid using a net-metering system.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
Article ID: 2084
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by Ramesh S. Bhat
Appl. Chem. Eng. 2024 , 7(1);    313 Views
Abstract Acidic sulphate bath having ZnSO 4 , TiSO 4 and sulphamic acid, was optimized for the deposition of bright Zn-Ti coating on mild steel. The effect of current density, on deposit characters, such as corrosion rate, thickness, and hardness were discussed. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods were used to evaluate the corrosion properties of the deposit. The composition of deposits was determined by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the surface topography of the deposited layer. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to determine the surface roughness. A new and low-priced sulphate bath, for bright Zn-Ti coatings on mild steel has been proposed, and the results indicate better corrosion resistance properties, and these coatings can be used for biomedical tools like Tuning fork, etc, applications.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
Article ID: 2459
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by Sherif Elshokary, Sherif Farag, Bitu Hurisso, Nazih Noaman Bayomi, Mostafa Ismail
Appl. Chem. Eng. 2024 , 7(1);    302 Views
Abstract This study introduces an innovative downdraft gasifier design that harnesses exhaust gas as the gasification agent, showcasing successful operation and extensive experimental investigations using various biomass feedstocks, notably wood pellets of different sizes (<20 mm to 20–50 mm). The gasification system exhibited the ability to produce clean syngas suitable for both heating and electricity generation. Experimental assessments encompassed a temperature range of (620 to 1250 ℃) and an equivalence ratio range of 0.2 to 0.5. The resulting syngas composition featured key constituents such as H 2 , CO, CO 2, and CH 4 , consistent with conventional gasification processes. The incorporation of exhaust gas as the gasification agent represents a pioneering advancement. This innovative approach not only minimizes energy input but also reduces greenhouse gas emissions, rendering the system more environmentally sustainable. The flow rate of the primary gasification agent was measured at 440 m 3 /h, and the producer gas’s exit temperature (300–650 ℃) was analyzed based on the moisture content of the biomass feedstock. The temperature within the reaction zone varied depending on the equivalence ratio (ER) for exhaust gas (700–974 ℃) and for air (ranging from 620–850 ℃). Additionally, the temperature was influenced by the moisture content, with ranges of (830–1050 ℃) for exhaust gas and 850–1050 ℃ for air. The syngas produced consisted mainly of carbon monoxide (14.4%–19.2%), hydrogen (16%–20%), carbon dioxide (7.1%–11.2%), and a small amount of methane (2%–3%). This innovative downdraft gasifier design holds substantial promise as a renewable energy system, particularly due to its utilization of low-cost materials and reduced environmental footprint. Such advancements pave the way for the widespread adoption of downdraft gasifiers, making them an attractive technology for thermal and power applications, especially in developing nations.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
Article ID: 2599
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by Yusuf Şahin, Demiral Akbar
Appl. Chem. Eng. 2024 , 7(1);    373 Views
Abstract Machine tools are very important metal cutting process that used widely in manufacture/construction and energy sector. Material removal rate in any metal cutting process is very important because it significantly affects the production rate, generated energy/forces, tool life. Improper choice of the machine tools, cutting tools or parameters will lead to be produced early wear, more energy and deterioration of surface qualities of machined mechanical components. The cutting process should be controlled during cutting or shaping process. In this study, therefore, multi-response optimization is carried out on AISI 1040 hardened mild steels when machined with ceramic cutting tools using response surface methodology under different cutting conditions. It can be noted that there are two responses. One is the surface roughness (SR) while the second is the material removal rate (MRR). The experimental results exhibits that all three factors reveal significant influence on generating metal cutting energy. Optimal levels are found out in A3, B3 and C3 level. Namely; cutting tests are carried out at 170 m/min cutting speed, 0.15 mm/rev. feed rate and 0.5 mm depth of cut conditions in terms of multi response performance index (MRPI). Analysis of variance and Pareto chart indicate that besides basic factors, A × C, A × B, B × C interactions have also an influence on MRPI (combination of MRR with SR). It is concluded that the correlation coefficient is found about 99.06%. Therefore, MRPI approach is capable of providing good modelling results for the combination of SR and MRR.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
Article ID: 2258
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by P. Siafarika, D.E. Mouzakis, N.K. Nasikas, A.G. Kalampounias
Appl. Chem. Eng. 2024 , 7(1);    267 Views
Abstract In the present study, we utilized the fused deposition modeling technique (FDM) to prepare polylactide (PLA) samples and evaluate in real time their thermal degradation by means of vibrational spectroscopy. The FDM method is probably the most popular technology among 3D printing technologies due to the inexpensive and flexible extrusion systems used for the handling of several thermoplastic materials. Nevertheless, a thermal degradation phenomenon of the 3D-printed thermoplastic PLA samples occurs, which is an inevitable issue for long-term reliability of the material leading to poor product properties. We recorded the Fourier transform infrared spectra in real-time mode to monitor the thermal degradation kinetics of PLA samples at a specific temperature below the glass transition point and explore the induced structural alterations. The absorbance of specific spectral features was used to evaluate the concentration reduction of PLA functional groups during the thermal degradation process. The kinetics of the thermal degradation was estimated by means of the absorbance of the C-COO band which reflects the scission of the ester linkage due to degradation process. The kinetic rate constant was found K t = 2.30 × 10 −3 s −1 . The results reported in this work were analyzed and discussed in view of relevant data reported for PLA samples prepared with traditional mechanical processing.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
Article ID: 2234
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by Shahnaz Sultana, S. M. Mobin Sikder, Nazia Rahman, MD. Nabul Sardar, Sapan Kumar Sen, Shakila Satter Rini, Mim Mostakima Mila
Appl. Chem. Eng. 2024 , 7(1);    406 Views
Abstract Although copper (Cu) is a very beneficial metal, having too much of it in the body can cause lung issues, severe anemia, nausea, and vomiting. In order to extract Cu (II) ions from aqueous solution, an adsorbent was constructed in this study employing pre-irradiation grafted Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) film. The grafting method was used to binary monomers of sodium styrene sulfonate (SSS) and acrylic acid (AA), where NaCl served as an additive. The grafted polymer was also subjected to studies of tensile strength, water uptake, surface area extension, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The adsorption of Cu (II) was investigated with respect to pH, starting metal ion concentrations, contact time, monomer concentrations, and temperature. With 50 kGy of radiation dose, 4% NaCl, and 30% of monomer solution (SSS:AA = 1:2) in water generated the highest graft yield of 470%. The maximum adsorption capacity (412 mg g −1 ) was discovered with an initial concentration of 2500 mg L −1 , a pH of 4.86, and a contact time of 24 h at room temperature (25 ℃). A monolayer adsorption was recommended by the good linking between experimental data and the Langmuir Isotherm Model. The kinetic adsorption data closely fitted with the pseudo-second-order reaction. Due to its increased adsorption capacity and reusability, the synthesized new grafted polymer can be considered an efficient adsorbent for Cu (II) removal from wastewater.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
Article ID: 2236
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by Fatemeh Mollaamin, Majid Monajjemi
Appl. Chem. Eng. 2024 , 7(1);    293 Views
Abstract Aluminum–Gallium doped with titanium by using ONIOM method through structural, electrical, and thermodynamic properties was studied in detail. Crystal structure of Ti–(Al–Ga) surface was coated by S- & N-heterocyclic carbenes of benzotriazole (BTA), 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (2MBT), 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ) and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole-5-thiol (ATR). The “NMR” spectroscopy of the adsorption of BTA, 2MBT, 8HQ, and ATR on the Ti–doped Al–Ga nanoalloy surface represents that this surface can be employed as the magnetic S- & N-heterocyclic carbene sensors. In fact, “Ti” site in “Ti–(Al–Ga)” nanoalloy surface has bigger interaction energy amount from “Van der Waals’ forces” with BTA, 2MBT, 8HQ, and ATR that might cause them large stable towards coating data on the nanosurface. It has been estimated that the criterion for choosing the surface linkage of “S” and “N” atom in BTA, 2MBT, 8HQ, and ATR in adsorption sites can be impacted by the existence of close atoms of aluminum and gallium in the “Ti–(Al–Ga)” surface. The fluctuation of “NQR” has estimated the inhibiting role of BTA, 2MBT, 8HQ, and ATR for Ti–doped Al–Ga alloy nanosheet due to “S” and “N” atoms in the benzene cycle of heterocyclic carbenes being near the monolayer surface of ternary “Ti–(Al–Ga)” nanoalloy. Moreover, “IR” spectroscopy has exhibited that Ti–doped Al–Ga alloy nanosheet with the fluctuation in the frequency of intra–atomic interaction leads us to the most considerable influence in the vicinage elements generated due to inter–atomic interaction. Comparison to  amounts versus dipole moment has illustrated a proper accord among measured parameters based on the rightness of the chosen isotherm for the adsorption steps of the formation of BTA @Ti–(Al–Ga), 2MBT @Ti–(Al–Ga), 8HQ @Ti–(Al–Ga), and ATR @Ti–(Al–Ga) complexes. Thus, the interval between sulfur, nitrogen and oxygen atoms in BTA, 2MBT, 8HQ, and ATR during interaction with transition metal of “Ti” in “Ti–(Al–Ga)” nanoalloy, (N→Ti, O→Ti, S→Ti), has been estimated with relation coefficient of R² = 0.9509. Thus, the present has exhibit the influence of “Ti” doped on the “Al–Ga” surface for adsorption of S- & N-heterocyclic carbenes of BTA, 2MBT, 8HQ, and ATR by using theoretical methods. Furthermore, the “partial electron density” or “PDOS” has estimated a certain charge assembly between Ti–(Al–Ga) and S– & N–heterocycles of BTA, 2MBT, 8HQ, and ATR which can remark that the complex dominant of metallic features and an exact degree of covalent traits can describe the augmenting of the sensitivity of “Ti–(Al–Ga)” surface as a potent sensor for adsorption of BTA, 2MBT, 8HQ, and ATR heterocycles.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
Article ID: 2224
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by Abdullah Al Mamun, Azni Idris, Wan Nor Azmin Sulaiman, Shahriar Shams
Appl. Chem. Eng. 2024 , 7(1);    224 Views
Abstract It has been quite a long time since the Malaysian government endorsed the Urban Storm Water Management Manual (USWMM) in 2000. Until now, there is no proper and detailed database on the non-point source contamination characteristics from various land uses in tropical regions of Malaysia. As such this study was conducted to fill part of the information gap pertaining to the nature of runoff quality in the tropical regions. The combined sewer outfall of a 6.14 ha residential area in Malaysia was studied to characterise the urban runoff quality generated due to tropical rain. As the drainage outlet discharges sullage and storm runoff through the same drainage network, hourly flow pattern and contaminant concentrations were determined both for sullage and storm runoff. Basic statistical analysis was conducted to determine the mean, standard deviation and event mean concentration values for the study area, for which such data was not available. It was observed that the runoff generated from the area is polluted due to high total suspended solids (TSS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The runoff contained more total organic carbon (TOC) than total inorganic carbon (TIC). The EMC values of BOD, COD, TSS, TOC, total Kjeldhal nitrogen, ammoniacal nitrogen and orthophosphate were 35, 168, 177, 11, 0.32, 0.54, 0.16 mg/L, respectively. The presence of heavy metals in the runoff was low. The EMC values of lead, zinc, nickel, cadmium, chromium and copper were 0.061, 0.358, 0.002, 0.002, 0.025 and 0.022 mg/L, respectively. Due to the high quantity of rainfall, a significant amount of annual contamination loading is generated from the nonpoint sources of the residential area.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
Article ID: 3097
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by Abu Md. Mehdi Hassan, Chengxi Yao, Muhammad Asif, Md. Ripaj Uddin, Muhammad Abdullah Al-Mansur, Mayeen Uddin Khandaker, Farzana Yasmin
Appl. Chem. Eng. 2024 , 7(1);    1255 Views
Abstract Environmental contamination increased as a result of the extensive use of fossil fuels, large-scale industrialization, and population growth. It has become an urgent need to reduce carbon emissions for environmental sustainability. The revolution in renewable energy may be the best option for lowering carbon emissions. In this research, rice straw was considered as a possible wellspring of bioenergy production. The aim of the study is to determine the best way to use biomass by comprehending its thermal qualities. Several state-of-the-art techniques were used to characterize the rice straws to understand their potential as a solid fuel for clean energy production. Elemental analysis reveals the predominance of carbon and oxygen content while nitrogen and sulfur are minor constituents in the studied rice straws. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis suggested the presence of cellulosic and ligneous constituents. Pyrolysis is one of the appropriate choices to make esteem expansion and contributes to biomass utilization. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) analyses revealed that rice straw pyrolysis has occurred in three distinct stages i.e., dehydration, active pyrolysis, and passive pyrolysis. The differential thermogravimetric graph (DTG) depicts how the temperature peak at the greatest weight loss shifts as the heating rate rises. Based on the characterization and subsequent analysis, it can be concluded that rice straw is a critical biomass and suitable to be used in clean energy production and maintain environmental sustainability.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
Article ID: 2828
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by Naser Abed Hassan, Hassan Ali Ahmed, Akram Khalaf Mohammed
Appl. Chem. Eng. 2024 , 7(1);    309 Views
Abstract Large areas of soil in Iraq are formed up of gypsum soil. As a result, understanding the habits of this soil and its treatment approach is critical, because its current solution is to replace gypsum soil before beginning any building activity. This study used gypsum soil from Tikrit City, which has a gypsum concentration that is around 38%, and the goal of the study is to illustrate the impact of the polymer on the gypsum soil parameters. Simultaneously, researchers are investigating the beneficial effects of polymers on the behavior of gypsum soil. The percentages of the polymer additive (5%, 7.5%, 10%, 12.5%, and 15%) were weight percentages, while the soil tests were chemical, physical, and engineering. When the percentage of additive was increased from 0% to 15%, Soil engineering characteristics enhanced the collapse of the from 5.11 to 1.21, cohesion improved from (28.98 KN/m 2 ) to (51.16 KN/m 2 ), and angles of internal friction decreased from 33.190 to 38.850.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
Article ID: 3276
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by Rafael Pinheiro Amantea, Daniele Sarri, Giuseppe Rossi
Appl. Chem. Eng. 2024 , 7(1);    151 Views
Abstract Grain drying control strategies aim for a rational energy use and a final product with low breakage levels. However, an experimental approach may be prohibitive due to the costs, scale, and theoretical complexity of this operation. The simulation environment is suitable to design equipment’s and plan operations strategies with low cost and high certainty. This work utilized system dynamics modelling to quantify the percentage of product breakage during drying in fluidized bed dryers under recirculation and tempering strategies. A sensitivity analysis of the model’s input parameters including different fractions of recirculation was performed, showing their effects on drying and post-drying product quality. Finally, we present optimizations from different objectives of drying operations. The recirculation strategy worked as an attenuator to the drying rates and combined with tempering strategy reached a minimum breakage level.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
Article ID: 3364
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by Ronakkumar Shah, Vishal Chaudhary, Manoj Kumar, Feroz Shaik, Digvijay Kulshrestha, Chandrakant Sonawane, Purva Saxena, Ankit Oza, Abhinav Kumar
Appl. Chem. Eng. 2024 , 7(1);    538 Views
Abstract The combustion chamber is a crucial component in power generation within a micro gas turbine. This paper prioritizes practical over theoretical considerations in designing an efficient, small-scale combustion chamber for micro gas turbine applications. The investigation covers the temperature profile within the combustion chamber, employing 19 reversible reactions and considering 9 different chemical species in reactive flow calculations. Preliminary experiments demonstrate hydrogen as a feasible fuel in a micro combustion chamber, generating approximately 1 kW of thermal power. Turbulence physics are assessed using the accurate k-Ɛ model. Findings indicate a reactant inlet temperature of 300 K and a primary zone temperature of 1750 K. This research suggests that minimizing the back pressure effect in a steady-state micro combustion chamber can improve turbine performance.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
Article ID: 3848
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by Dattatraya Popat Kshirsagar, Venkatesh Meda Adisheshaiahshetty
Appl. Chem. Eng. 2024 , 7(1);    229 Views
Abstract In the presence of green technology or biodegradable options, vegetable oils emerged as replacements for mineral oil as base oils due to their properties of high viscosity index, high flash point, low toxicity, low volatility, and high biodegradability. Nano fluids were a relatively new class of fluids that consisted of a base fluid with nano-sized particles (1–100 nm) suspended within them. The synthesis and characterization of biodegradable hybrid nano fluids and their combination with base materials were carried out in this paper, playing a vital role in machining operations. SiC and TiO 2 were used as nano particles, with the base fluid being palm oil, and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) was employed as a surfactant to maintain fluid stability. All samples were prepared in individual and hybrid modes, including palm oil as the base fluid without any emulsifier/surfactant, palm oil + SiC with nano particle concentrations of 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.3% by volume, palm oil + TiO 2 with nano particle concentrations of 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.3% by volume, and palm oil + SiC + TiO 2 with nano particle concentrations of 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.3% by volume. The FTIR results showed that the SiC + palm oil and SiC + TiO 2 + palm oil samples had better chemical composition and surface characterization as biodegradable hybrid nano fluids. The zeta potential values were observed to increase at volume concentrations of 1%, 2%, and 3%. Particularly, the biodegradable hybrid nano fluid samples (palm oil + 1% Vol. SiC + TiO 2 ) and (palm oil + 2% Vol. SiC) demonstrated increased stability as well as enhanced physical, thermal, and rheological properties in machining applications.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
Article ID: 3576
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by Raja Subramani, Arun Kumar Kalidass, Mohan Dass Muneeswaran, Balaji Gantala Lakshmipathi
Appl. Chem. Eng. 2024 , 7(1);    342 Views
Abstract The objective of this study is to investigate how the mechanical properties of components produced using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) on a Creality Ender-3 3D printer are affected by various fused deposition modeling (FDM) printing parameters. The impact of various factors, including infill density, printing speed, platform temperature, extruder temperature, and so on, was assessed in terms of their influence on the ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and elastic modulus of the manufactured components. The impact of each parameter was assessed using a Multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methodology. Finally, the second set of parameters, including a 35% infill thickness, 0.25 mm layer level, 40 mm/s printing speed, 75 °C platform temperature, 210 °C extruder temperature, and 75 mm/s travel speed, was discovered to be the most suitable for ABS filament used to make impellers.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
Article ID: 2802
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by Sergey Osipov, Ivan Komarov, Olga Zlyvko, Timofey Karev, Maxim Oparin
Appl. Chem. Eng. 2024 , 7(1);    159 Views
Abstract The article presents the results of a study of the workflow parameters influence in the full-scale and model burners of the combustion chamber oxy-fuel combined cycle on the deviation of similarity criteria from full-scale values. The variable parameters are the pressure and velocity of the fluid under model conditions, as well as the power of model and full-scale burners. The supercritical parameters of the working fluid in the cylindrical sections of the combustion zone at a pressure of 30 MPa and a temperature of 1570 ℃ were taken as full-scale conditions. In this paper, the dependences of the deviations of hydrodynamic and thermophysical similarity criteria on the speed and pressure of the combustion products of an oxygen-fuel mixture with carbon dioxide in the working zone of the test bench for burners are obtained. The parameters of the working fluid and the power of model burners are obtained, at which the values of the criteria deviations are minimal.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
Article ID: 3092
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by Karthigaikumar Palanivel, Justin Varghese
Appl. Chem. Eng. 2024 , 7(1);    148 Views
Abstract The threats to the environment and humans are increasing every day due to the use of modern plastics and their improper disposal approaches. Researchers pay more attention to reducing plastic waste through recycling so that it can be used as a raw material. In the recycling chain, grading or identifying different types of plastic is essential. For this, Lase Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) has been established. LIBS is an effective investigation tool that analyzes plastics in a qualitative and quantitative manner. Spectral analysis of different kinds of plastics is performed from the plasma emission obtained from LIBS. In this research work different types of plastic samples are identified using LIBS and classified using back propagation neural network algorithm (BPNN). The research aimed to attain a simple application to detect plastic polymers compared to existing approaches. To validate the better results proposed model performances are compared with existing kNN, SIMCA and ANN based classification models.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
Article ID: 2337
by Radha Khambhampati, Sireesha Dodda, Rajendra Kumar Jadi
Appl. Chem. Eng. 2024 , 7(1);    160 Views
Abstract We have successfully developed and validated a reliable method using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) that accurately determines stability, amounts of darunavir and ritonavir, in both their pure and dosage form. To achieve this, we utilized a Phenomenex C18 column with dimensions of 250 × 4.6 mm and a particle size of 5 μm. By pumping methanol as mobile phase through the column, at a flow rate of 1mL/min we were able to achieve results. The detection was performed at the wavelengths of 265 nm and 238 nm, for darunavir and ritonavir respectively using PDA detector. The retention times of darunavir and ritonavir were found to be 2.696 and 3.031 min respectively. Linearity was established in concentration range of 10 to 100 µg/mL with r2 ≥ 0.99. This method shows good precision results, the percentage RSD was found to be 0.965 and 1.429. The % recovery was obtained as 99.70 % and 98.83 % for darunavir and ritonavir respectively. The LOD and LOQ values were found to be 4.36 µg/mL and 13.20 µg/mL for darunavir and 4.97 µg/mL and 15.05 µg/mL for ritonavir, respectively.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
Article ID: 2137
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by Abdullah Al Mamun, Azni Idris, Mustapha Mujeli
Appl. Chem. Eng. 2024 , 7(1);    151 Views
Abstract The effect of pH on the performance of a pilot-scale anaerobic fluidised bed reactor (AnFBR) was studied using palm oil mill effluent (POME) as the substrate. The performance of the 2000-litre reactor at different operating conditions, such as organic loading rates and retention times was studied. This acidic agro-industrial wastewater (pH 4.0–5.0) was neutralised by adding slacked lime. It was observed that, within 12 hr of hydraulic retention time (HRT), the AnFBR removes as high as 85% of the substrate chemical oxygen demand (COD) at a loading rate of 4 kg/m 3 day. High pre-treatment cost is needed to neutralise the bulk volume of wastewater that was generated from the palm oil industries. Thus, an attempt was made to study the performance of the AnFBR under pH shock load. The influent pH was increased to 9.2 and then dropped around 5.0 to intensify the effect of the pH shock load. At shock load, the reactor performance for COD removal dropped by about 25% lower than the optimum condition. The maximum and minimum COD removal rates during the short period of continuous shock load were 60% and 56.5%, respectively. The average effluent pH remained steady at around 6.1. From the analysis, it was revealed that the anaerobic fluidised bed had the buffering ability and was capable of treating POME with moderate removal efficiency at an influent pH of 5.0.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
Article ID: 2312
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by Shashank Tidke, Pooja B, Manjula B.V, Roma Singh, R Shora, Arush HA, Sinosh S, Sairam Geethanath, Kiran S, Ravishankar G.A
Appl. Chem. Eng. 2024 , 7(1);    193 Views
Abstract To enhance the nutraceutical value and preservation of mushrooms, this study focused on augmenting two widely consumed mushroom varieties in India namely the  Button Mushroom ( Pleurotus ostreatus ) and Oyster Mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus ). These mushrooms were subjected to UV light exposure to evaluate their impact on phytochemical content, including phenolics, flavonoids, folic acid, and Vitamin D2. The percent increase in phenolic content after 120 minutes of UV treatment was 0.6-fold for Agaricus bisporus and 0.7-fold for Pleurotus ostreatus . Notably, A. bisporus exhibited a particularly high phenolic content of up to 13.5 mg per gram dry weight of mushroom after 120 minutes of UV exposure, in contrast to P. ostreatus , which displayed 8.7 mg per gram dry weight of mushroom under the same conditions. This study also revealed a threefold increase in flavonoid content in Pleurotus ostreatus , rising from 1.2 mg of quercetin/g in the control to 4.1 mg of quercetin/g after UV exposure for 120 minutes. Conversely, a sevenfold increase in quercetin content was observed in Agaricus bisporus , surging from 0.45 g (control) to 3.2 g following 120 minutes of UV exposure. The exposure of UV light for 60 minutes resulted in the highest absorbance of vitamin D2 at  0.81 OD in Pleorotus osteatus compared to 0.46 in Agaricus bisporus . Additionally, applying agar or gelatine coatings led to a shelf-life extension of up to 14 days under standard storage conditions. The use of MRI for quality determination of mushrooms by evaluating the lipid profile in the samples was reported for the first time. This study has shown a significant enhancement of nutraceutical components of mushrooms with special reference to phenolics, flavonoids, folic acid, and vitamin D2 for value addition, with a simple intervention of UV treatment. Moreover, the shelf life of mushrooms could be enhanced by agar and gelatin coating thereby extending the keeping quality. The use of MRI for evaluating the quality of mushrooms has also been the hallmark of this study. The practical utility of all the above findings has immense industrial application in the large-scale production of highly nutritive mushrooms.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
Article ID: 2310
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by Vladimir Zaichick, Denis Dogadkin, Irina Gromya, Vladimir Kolotov
Appl. Chem. Eng. 2024 , 7(1);    204 Views
Abstract Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) has been shown to be an effective method for determining the content of Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, S, Si, Sr and Zn in small mass samples of breast tissue. The method is relatively simple and applicable directly in the clinic for express diagnostics. The autopsy material of 38 practically healthy women aged 16–60 years who died suddenly was studied using the developed method of ICP-AES. Mean values (M ± SD) of mass fractions (mg kg-1 of dry tissue) of chemical elements in normal breast tissue of women were: Al 3.62 ± 2.44, Ca 77.7 ± 61.8, Cu 1.03 ± 1.01, Fe 13.8 ± 12.3, K 194 ± 114, Mg 18.5 ± 9.0, Na 686 ± 516, P 201 ± 74, S 385 ± 224, Si 8.75 ± 6.22b, Sr 0.50 ± 0.24, and Zn 3.29 ± 1.65. The ability of breast tissue to absorb Al, Fe and Sr from the interstitial fluid was revealed. The selective accumulation of Al, Fe, and Sr should be taken into account in further studies of the role of chemical elements in the etiology of breast pathologies, as well as in the development of methods for the differential diagnosis of diseases, for example, benign and malignant tumors of the mammary gland.
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Open Access
Review Article
Article ID: 2646
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by Rajesh Kumar Srivastava, Prakash Kumar Sarangi, Uttam Kumar Sahoo, Tarun Kumar Thakur, Harikesh B. Singh, Sanjukta Subudhi
Appl. Chem. Eng. 2024 , 7(1);    568 Views
Abstract Biomethanol, a renewable and sustainable alternative to traditional fossil-fuel-derived methanol, has garnered considerable attention as a potential solution to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and dependence on non-renewable resources. The utilization of biocatalysts in biomethanol production offers a promising avenue to achieve environmentally friendly and economically viable processes. Paper highlights the biocatalytic pathways involved in biomethanol synthesis. Particular emphasis is placed on microbial biocatalysts, such as methanogenic archaea and certain bacteria, which possess the unique capability of converting carbon dioxide and hydrogen into methanol through a series of enzymatic reactions. Additionally, enzyme-based systems derived from various microorganisms and genetically engineered organisms are also discussed as potential biocatalysts for biomethanol synthesis. Paper also delves into the current challenges and limitations faced in harnessing biocatalysts for biomethanol production. These challenges include substrate availability, low conversion rates, enzyme stability, and process scalability. Several strategies to address these issues are highlighted, including metabolic engineering, synthetic biology, and bioprocess optimization techniques. The advantages of utilizing biocatalysts for biomethanol production are outlined. Biocatalytic routes offer the advantage of operating under mild conditions, which reduces energy consumption and minimizes the production of unwanted by-products. Furthermore, the utilization of renewable feedstocks, such as carbon dioxide captured from industrial emissions or waste streams, enhances the sustainability of the process. The final section discusses future prospects and potential research directions in the field of biocatalytic biomethanol production. Advances in biotechnology, omics technologies, and computational modeling are poised to accelerate the discovery and optimization of novel biocatalysts, thereby unlocking the full potential of biomethanol as a sustainable fuel and chemical precursor. The use of biocatalysts for biomethanol production offers an attractive approach to establish a green and circular economy. With ongoing research and technological advancements, the field holds significant promise for reducing carbon emissions and transitioning towards a more sustainable energy landscape. However, to fully realize the potential of biocatalytic biomethanol production, interdisciplinary collaboration and concerted efforts are required to address existing challenges.
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Open Access
Review Article
Article ID: 2042
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by Abhinay Thakur, Ashish Kumar
Appl. Chem. Eng. 2024 , 7(1);    547 Views
Abstract Titanium-based biomedical implants are widely used owing to their biocompatibility, corrosion resistance and mechanical strength. Although, they still face challenges such as poor osseointegration and implant failure caused by corrosion. To address these challenges, various surface treatments have emerged to enhance the biocompatibility and corrosion resistance of titanium implants. This review article presents a concise overview of the innovative surface treatments for enhanced corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of titanium-based biomedical implants. The surface treatment briefly discussed includes physical, chemical, and biological treatments, such as plasma spraying, anodization, electrochemical deposition, and biomimetic coating. Furthermore, this article also highlights the importance of surface treatments to enhance the biological performance of titanium-based implants. This review provides insights for researchers and clinicians in the field of titanium-based biomaterials and may contribute to the development of more effective and durable biomedical implants.
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Open Access
Review Article
Article ID: 2140
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by Md. Mominur Rahman, Md. Abid Hossain, Kajima Rifat, Saila Kabir Maeesa, A. M. Abu Sayem Rahman, Mahamuda Akter Mim, Nasrin Sultana, Dipongkar Ray Sobuj, Israt Jahan Tamanna, Md. Rezaul Islam, Sharifa Sultana, Arifa Sultana, Rohit Sharma, Rajeev K. Singla
Appl. Chem. Eng. 2024 , 7(1);    746 Views
Abstract Neurological disorders (NDs) such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), epilepsy, despondency, and dementia have been evidenced as a rising concern among diverse geographical regions. Brain-related diseases are currently the main concern because they increase mortality and morbidity in the elderly. Regardless of the continual efforts by modern scientists to develop a promising pharmacological or surgical management, the outcome has not been satisfactory. Also, due to synthetic drugs’ associated side effects, scientists have taken the initiative to consider using natural compounds as an alternative. Hence, they obtain pretty effective results by using natural compounds. Natural ingredients are synthesized from a variety of plant and animal sources. These natural ingredients cure brain diseases through a variety of mechanisms. For effective medication advancement, the molecules must go through preliminary clinical systems that require some investment and significant speculation. In this situation, cheminformatics is fundamental in diminishing time and venture. Cheminformatics methods play a significant role in these issues, including 3-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship 3D-(QSAR), virtual screening, docking, molecular dynamic studies, and quantum chemical studies. The vital purpose of this study is to disclose different types of NDs and the neuroprotective effect of several natural products for experimental and cheminformatics-based therapy. Natural products like green tea, flavonoids, and ginseng are discussed as effective neuroprotective products. However, more investigation is expected to comprehend the better utilization of regular items in future exploratory and cheminformatics-based treatment for NDs.
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