Vol 6, No 1 (2023)

The judicious application of geological expertise and advanced mapping techniques is essential for the responsible and equitable management of natural resources. The research featured in this latest issue of Journal of Geography and Cartography highlights how the integration of geological science and cutting-edge cartographic capabilities is crucial for the sustainable stewardship of natural resources, both on land and in marine environments. By leveraging this comprehensive, evidence-based knowledge, decision-makers at all levels—from local communities to national governments—can make more informed choices that balance economic priorities, environmental stewardship, and the equitable distribution of natural resource benefits. This is particularly crucial as societies grapple with the complex challenges of sustainable development, climate change, and resource scarcity.

Table of Contents

Open Access
Article
Article ID: 1980
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by Sergio Sierra, Elena Prado, Luis Rodríguez-Cobo, Carla Quiles-Pons, Pablo Roldán-Varona, David Díaz-Viñolas, Pedro Anuarbe-Cortés, Adolfo Cobo, Francisco Sánchez
J. Geogr. Cartogr. 2023 , 6(1);    380 Views
Abstract Monitoring marine biodiversity is a challenge in some vulnerable and difficult-to-access habitats, such as underwater caves. Underwater caves are a great focus of biodiversity, concentrating a large number of species in their environment. However, most of the sessile species that live on the rocky walls are very vulnerable, and they are often threatened by different pressures. The use of these spaces as a destination for recreational divers can cause different impacts on the benthic habitat. In this work, we propose a methodology based on video recordings of cave walls and image analysis with deep learning algorithms to estimate the spatial density of structuring species in a study area. We propose a combination of automatic frame overlap detection, estimation of the actual extent of surface cover, and semantic segmentation of the main 10 species of corals and sponges to obtain species density maps. These maps can be the data source for monitoring biodiversity over time. In this paper, we analyzed the performance of three different semantic segmentation algorithms and backbones for this task and found that the Mask R-CNN model with the Xception101 backbone achieves the best accuracy, with an average segmentation accuracy of 82%.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 1850
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by Alaaddin Vural
J. Geogr. Cartogr. 2023 , 6(1);    250 Views
Abstract In this study, the enrichment of the major oxide, trace element/heavy metal and rare earth element contents of the rocks outcropping in Kısacık and its vicinity (Ayvacık-Çanakkale/Türkiye) were investigated. The rocks in the field were handled in 5 groups, and whole rock analyses were carried out for 22 samples collected representing these rock groups and Element Enrichment Factor (EEF) of the major oxide, trace element/heavy metal and rare earth element contents of the rocks were calculated. As a result, it was determined that the Kısacık volcanics were enriched in SiO2, Fe2O3, K2O, Be, Co, Cs, Th, U, W, La, Eu, Tm, Yb, Lu, Mo, As, Cd, Sb, Bi and Hg elements at a rate of >1 to >150 according to the upper crust values, and the Fe2O3, MgO, CaO, TiO2, P2O5, MnO, Cr, Sc, Co, Nb, Sr, Mo, Cu, Ni, Cad, Sb, Bi, V, Cu and Cd concentrations of the Ophiolitic Mélange were enriched in ratios ranging from >1 to >36 according to the upper crust values. It has been also observed that the listvenitic rocks in the Ophiolitic Mélange are enriched in Cr, Co, Ni, As and Hg elements compared to the upper crust. As to Kazdağ Group, MgO, CaO, K2O, MnO, Cr, Co, Ta, U, W, Mo, Cu, Ni, As and Cd were enriched. Listvenite were enriched in SiO2, Fe2O3, MgO, Mn, Cr, Co, Ni, As, Sb and Hg at a rate of >1 to >32 according to the upper crust values. When the rocks in the area were evaluated together, some oxides (e.g., CaO, MgO, Fe2O3, TiO2) and elements (e.g., Cr, Ni, Co) were enriched due to parental rock, while some oxides (e.g., SiO2, K2O and MnO) and elements (As, Sb, Hg) were enriched due to epigenic processes such as hydrothermal alteration and weathering.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 2065
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by Lei Xu, Hongchu Yu, Xihao Zhang, Yuan Gan
J. Geogr. Cartogr. 2023 , 6(1);    344 Views
Abstract Abrupt changes in environmental temperature, wind and humidity can lead to great threats to human life safety. The Gansu marathon disaster of China highlights the importance of early warning of hypothermia from extremely low appar-ent temperature (AT). Here a deep convolutional neural network model together with a statistical downscaling framework is developed to forecast environmental factors for 1 to 12 h in advance to evaluate the effectiveness of deep learning for AT prediction at 1 km resolution. The experiments use data for temperature, wind speed and relative humidity in ERA-5 and the results show that the developed deep learning model can predict the upcoming extreme low temperature AT event in the Gansu marathon region several hours in advance with better accuracy than climatological and persistence forecast-ing methods. The hypothermia time estimated by the deep learning method with a heat loss model agrees well with the observed estimation at 3-hour lead. Therefore, the developed deep learning forecasting method is effective for short-term AT prediction and hypothermia warnings at local areas.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 2010
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by Mehari Gebreyohannes Hiben, Admasu Gebeyehu Awoke, Abraha Adugna Ashenafi
J. Geogr. Cartogr. 2023 , 6(1);    452 Views
Abstract In most studies on hydroclimatic variability and trend, the notion of change point detection analysis of time series data has not been considered. Understanding the system is crucial for managing water resources sustainably in the future since it denotes a change in the status quo. If this happened, it is difficult to distinguish the time series data’s rising or falling tendencies in various areas when we look at the trend analysis alone. This study’s primary goal was to describe, quantify, and confirm the homogeneity and change point detection of hydroclimatic variables, including mean annual, seasonal, and monthly rainfall, air temperature, and streamflow. The method was employed using the four-homogeneity test, i.e., Pettitt’s test, Buishand’s test, standard normal homogeneity test, and von Neumann ratio test at 5% significance level. In order to choose the homogenous stations, the test outputs were divided into three categories: “useful”, “doubtful”, and “suspect”. The results showed that most of the stations for annual rainfall and air temperature were homogenous. It is found that 68.8% and 56.2% of the air temperature and rainfall stations respectively, were classified as useful. Whereas, the streamflow stations were classified 100% as useful. Overall, the change point detection analyses timings were found at monthly, seasonal, and annual time scales. In the rainfall time series, no annual change points were detected. In the air temperature time series except at Edagahamus station, all stations experienced an increasing change point while the streamflow time series experienced a decreasing change point except at Agulai and Genfel hydro stations. While alterations in streamflow time series without a noticeable change in rainfall time series recommend the change is caused by variables besides rainfall. Most probably the observed abrupt alterations in streamflow could result from alterations in catchment characteristics like the subbasin’s land use and cover. These research findings offered important details on the homogeneity and change point detection of the research area’s air temperature, rainfall, and streamflow necessary for the planers, decision-makers, hydrologists, and engineers for a better water allocation strategy, impact assessment and trend analyses.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 2108
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by Barbara Theilen-Willige
J. Geogr. Cartogr. 2023 , 6(1);    198 Views
Abstract Although dykes are a predominant and widely distributed phenomenon in S-Algeria, N-Mali and N-Niger, a system-atic, standardized inventory of dykes covering these areas has not been published so far. Remote sensing and geo infor-mation system (GIS) tools offer an opportunity for such an inventory. This inventory is not only of interest for the mining industry as many dykes are related to mineral occurrence of economic value, but also for hydrogeologic investigations (dykes can form barriers for groundwater flow). Surface-near dykes, major fault zones, volcanic and structural features were digitized based on Landsat 8 and 9, Sentinel 2, Sentinel 1 and ALOS PALSAR data. High resolution images of World Imagery files/ESRI and Bing Maps Aerial/Microsoft were included into the evaluations. More than 14,000 dykes were digitized and analyzed. The evaluations of satellite images allow a geomorphologic differentiation of types of dykes and the description of their characteristics such as dyke swarms or ring dykes. Dykes are tracing zones of weakness like faults and zones with higher geomechanically strain. Dyke density calculations were carried out in ArcGIS to support the detection of dyke concentrations as stress indicator. Thus, when occurring concentrated, they might indicate stressed areas where further magmatic and earthquake activity might potentially happen in future.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 2184
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by Bikesh Jojiju, Rajan Subedi
J. Geogr. Cartogr. 2023 , 6(1);    210 Views
Abstract The present study assessed the potential of sediment loading in Beteni, Lauruk, Andheri, and Harpan sub-watersheds of Phewa Lake and estimated the sediment yield in the year 2020. Morphometry, land use/land cover, geology, climate, and human and development factors of the sub-watersheds were studied to assess the potential of sediment loading in the sub-watersheds. SRTM DEM was used for the computation of morphometric parameters and land use/land cover maps were prepared by using Landsat imagery. Geology, rainfall data, census data, and road maps were collected from various secondary sources. The sediment yields of the four sub-watersheds in the year 2020 were estimated by measuring the sediment volume deposited in the sediment retention ponds at the outlet of each sub-watershed. Results indicated that Beteni had the highest potential for sediment loading, while Harpan had the lowest. Likewise, the sediment yields for Beteni, Lauruk, Andheri, and Harpan sub-watersheds in 2020 were estimated at 1,420.67 m 3 /km 2 /year, 2,280.14 m 3 /km 2 /year, 1,666.77 m 3 /km 2 /year, and 766.42 m 3 /km 2 /year, respectively. To reduce sedimentation in Phewa Lake, it is recommended to regularly maintain siltation dams and construct check dams along the drainage slopes, alongside other soil conservation measures and appropriate land use practices in the upstream areas of the sub-watersheds.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 2192
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by Alaaddin Vural
J. Geogr. Cartogr. 2023 , 6(1);    185 Views
Abstract The aim of this study is to investigate the behavior of major and trace elements in aspen leaves grown in an intensely altered region from a geochemical point of view. In this context, major and trace element contents of aspen leaves (Pop-ulus tremula L.) grown on Gümüştuğ (Gümüşhane/Türkiye) antimony mineralization were investigated. For this purpose, 56 leaf samples were collected from the field by grid method and at intervals of approximately 50–60 m. After routine sample preparation processes, analyzes were carried out to determine the major and trace element concentrations. Subse-quently, elemental concentrations of aspen leaves were evaluated by different statistical methods. As a result, major ele-ments Ca, Mg, Na, K, Al and S concentrations were determined in the range of 2%–3%, 0.23%–0.85%, up to 0.02%, 0.79%–2.01%, 0.01%–0.03% and 0.13%–0.43%, respectively. The trace element concentrations were determined in the range of 127–339 ppm, 86.7–265.30 ppm, 0.1–1.21 ppm, 13.5–453.20 ppm, 6.0–12.0 ppm, 14.0–82.0 ppm and 0.1–0.60 ppm for Mn, Sr, La, Ba, Ti, B and Se, respectively. Considering that the samples were taken from aspen leaves grown on the antimony mineralization, the concentrations of the antimonite element were determined above the detection limit in only a few sampling points in the study. But the concentrations of B, Mn, Sr, La of aspen (Populus Tremula L.) leaves are remarkable.
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Open Access
Review
Article ID: 1855
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by Gemma Aiello
J. Geogr. Cartogr. 2023 , 6(1);    217 Views
Abstract A review of the CARG Project of the Campania Region (marine counterpart) up to water depths of 200 m is herein proposed referring to the Gulf of Naples (southern Tyrrhenian Sea) aimed at focusing on the main scientific results obtained in the frame of this important project of marine geological cartography. The Gulf of Naples includes several geological sheets, namely n. 464 “Island of Ischia” both at the 1:25,000 and 1:10,000 scale, n. 465 “Island of Procida” at the 1:50,000 scale, n. 466–485 “Sorrento–Termini” at the 1:50,000 scale, n. 446–447 Naples at the 1:50,000 scale, and n. 484 “Island of Capri” at the 1:25,000 scale. The detailed revision of both the marine geological and geophysical data and of the literature data has allowed us to outline new perspectives in marine geology and cartography of Campania Region, including monitoring of coastal zone and individuation of coastal and volcano-tectonic and marine hazards.
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Open Access
Review
Article ID: 1770
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by Márton Veress
J. Geogr. Cartogr. 2023 , 6(1);    198 Views
Abstract Karren and mass movements are described. Mass movements taking place on karren terrains are studied in case of bare karren and covered karren. Mass movements occur at rinnenkarren, grikes, Schichtfugenkarren, and tropical karren. This study describes that karren features increase the chance of the development of certain mass movements. It is approached in a theoretical way that in the case of different preconditions (e.g., change of slope angle), what kind of mass movements are triggered by different karren features. The most common mass movement is triggered by karren which are debris creep, gelisolifluction, rock avalanche, collapses, creep and solifluction.
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Open Access
Review
Article ID: 1865
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by Zahra Rezaei, Mohammad H. Vahidnia, Hossein Aghamohammadi, Zahra Azizi, Saeed Behzadi
J. Geogr. Cartogr. 2023 , 6(1);    1071 Views
Abstract The idea of a smart city has evolved in recent years from limiting the city’s physical growth to a comprehensive idea that includes physical, social, information, and knowledge infrastructure. As of right now, many studies indicate the potential advantages of smart cities in the fields of education, transportation, and entertainment to achieve more sustainability, efficiency, optimization, collaboration, and creativity. So, it is necessary to survey some technical knowledge and technology to establish the smart city and digitize its services. Traffic and transportation management, together with other subsystems, is one of the key components of creating a smart city. We specify this research by exploring digital twin (DT) technologies and 3D model information in the context of traffic management as well as the need to acquire them in the modern world. Despite the abundance of research in this field, the majority of them concentrate on the technical aspects of its design in diverse sectors. More details are required on the application of DTs in the creation of intelligent transportation systems. Results from the literature indicate that implementing the Internet of Things (IoT) to the scope of traffic addresses the traffic management issues in densely populated cities and somewhat affects the air pollution reduction caused by transportation systems. Leading countries are moving towards integrated systems and platforms using Building Information Modelling (BIM), IoT, and Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) to make cities smarter. There has been limited research on the application of digital twin technology in traffic control. One reason for this could be the complexity of the traffic system, which involves multiple variables and interactions between different components. Developing an accurate digital twin model for traffic control would require a significant amount of data collection and analysis, as well as advanced modeling techniques to account for the dynamic nature of traffic flow. We explore the requirements for the implementation of the digital twin in the traffic control industry and a proper architecture based on 6 main layers is investigated for the deployment of this system. In addition, an emphasis on the particular function of DT in simulating high traffic flow, keeping track of accidents, and choosing the optimal path for vehicles has been reviewed. Furthermore, incorporating user-generated content and volunteered geographic information (VGI), considering the idea of the human as a sensor, together with IoT can be a future direction to provide a more accurate and up-to-date representation of the physical environment, especially for traffic control, according to the literature review. The results show there are some limitations in digital twins for traffic control. The current digital twins are only a 3D representation of the real world. The difficulty of synchronizing real and virtual world information is another challenge. Eventually, in order to employ this technology as effectively as feasible in urban management, the researchers must address these drawbacks.
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