Vol 4, No 2 (2021)

GIS technology has become an increasingly pervasive and powerful tool across a wide range of geographic and spatial domains. The studies featured in this journal issue showcase the versatility of GIS in supporting a variety of real-world applications and decision-making processes. These diverse studies underscore the transformative potential of GIS as a versatile tool for addressing complex, real-world challenges across multiple geographic and disciplinary domains. By enabling the integration, analysis, and visualization of spatial data, GIS empowers researchers, planners, and decision-makers to gain deeper insights, make more informed choices, and drive positive change in their respective fields of work.

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Table of Contents

Open Access
Article
Article ID: 765
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by Rudraksh Tiwari, Vijay S Katta, Vinod Kuumar Kushwah, Mulayam Singh Gaur, Priti Dimri
J. Geogr. Cartogr. 2021 , 4(2);    1128 Views
Abstract The changes the magnetic flux generated (electric, magnetic and electromagnetic waves) on the surface of earth due to sudden changes is a matter of discussion. These emissions occur along the fault line generated due to geological and tectonic processes. When sudden changes occur in the environment due to seismic and atmospheric variations, these sensing was observed by creatures and human bodies because the animals and trees adopt the abnormal signals and change the behavior. We have analyzed the changing behavior of recorded signal by live sensors (i.e., banyan tree). So we use the deep-rooted and long-aged banyan tree. The root of banyan tree (long-aged) has been working as a live sensor to record the geological and environmental changes. We record the low frequency signals propagated through solar-terrestrial environment which directly affect the root system of the banyan tree and changes that have been observed by live sensors. Then, very low frequency (VLF) signal may propagate to the earth-ionosphere waveguide. We have also analyzed the different parameters of live cells which is inbuilt in latex of the tree, so we record the dielectric parameters of green stem latex and found some parameters i.e., dielectric constant ( ε ) and dielectric loss ( ε’ ) of various trees to verify these natural hazards and found good correlation. Therefore, we can say by regularly monitoring the bio-potential signal and dielectric properties of banyan tree and we are able to find the precursory signature of seismic hazards and environmental changes.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 764
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by K. Jayakumar
J. Geogr. Cartogr. 2021 , 4(2);    1388 Views
Abstract Shore line change is considered as one of the most dynamic processes, which were mapped along the coast of Tiruvallur district by using topographic maps of 1976 and multi-temporal satellite images. The satellite images pertaining to 1988, 1991, 2006, 2010, 2013 and 2016 were used to extract the shorelines. It is important to map and monitor the HTL (High Tide Line) at frequent time intervals as the shoreline was demarcated by using visual interpretation technique from satellite images and topographic maps. Followed by this, an overlay analysis was performed to calculate areas of erosion and accretion in the study area. The results revealed that the coast of Tiruvallur district lost 603 ha and gained 630 ha due to erosion and accretion respectively. It was confirmed after the ground truth survey carried out in the study area. The high accretion of 178 ha was found nearby Pulicat Lake and low accretion of 19 ha was seen between Pulicat Lake and Kattupali Port. The high erosion area was found along the Pulicat Lake, Kattupali and Ennore ports, and Ennore creek mouth and southern Ennore such as Periya Kuppam, Chinna Kuppam, Kasi Koil Kuppam, and Thyagarajapuram. It may be concluded that the coastal erosion and accretion in the study area were mainly caused by anthropogenic and natural factors, which altered the coastal environment.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 601
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by Sara Abdollahi, Akram Karimi, Meysam Madadi, Saeid Eslamian, Kaveh Ostad-Ali-Askari, Vijay P. Singh
J. Geogr. Cartogr. 2021 , 4(2);    1272 Views
Abstract Dust is one of the atmospheric pollutants that have adverse environmental effects and consequences. Dust fall contains particles of 100 microns or even smaller ones, which fall from the atmosphere onto the earth surface. The aim of this study is to determine the concentration of lead in dust fall samples in order to study the pollution level of this element in Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchistan Province, Iran. Therefore, sampling was carried out using 30 marble dust collectors (MDCO) for 3 months in the spring of 2015 to investigate the quantitative variation and spatial analysis of lead content in dust fall. These dust collectors were placed at 30 stations on the building roofs with a height of approximately 1.5 meters across the city. According to the results, the mean lead concentration in the spring was 90.16 mg/kg. In addition, the zoning map of lead content shows that the lowest level of lead was measured at Imam Khomeini station while the highest amount of lead appeared in Mostafa Khomeini station.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 904
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by P. Mohana, S. Muthusamy
J. Geogr. Cartogr. 2021 , 4(2);    6542 Views
Abstract It increased the demands on ground-water supplies that prolonged drought and improper maintenance of water resources. So it is necessary to evaluate ground-water resources in the hard rock terrain. In recent years, Remote-Sensing methods have been increasingly recognized as a means of obtaining crucial geoscientific data for both regional and site-specific investigations. This work aims to develop and apply integrated methods combining the information obtained by geo-hydrological field mapping and those obtained by analyzing multi-source remotely sensed data in a GIS environment for better understanding the Groundwater condition in hard rock terrain. In this study, digitally enhanced Landsat ETM+ data was used to extract information on geology, geomorphology. The Hill-Shading techniques are applied to SRTM DEM data to enhance terrain perspective views, and extract Geomorphological features and morphologically defined structures through the means of lineament analysis. A combination of Spectral information from Landsat ETM+ data plus spatial information from SRTM-DEM data is used to address the groundwater potential of alluvium, colluvium, and fractured crystalline rocks in the study area. The spatial distribution of groundwater potential zones shows regional patterns related to lithologies, lineaments, drainage systems, and landforms. High-yielding wells and springs are often related to large lineaments and corresponding structural features such as dykes. The results show that the combination of remote sensing, GIS, traditional fieldwork, and models provide a powerful tool for water resources assessment and management, and groundwater exploration planning.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 1309
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by Mohamed Abdelkareem, Abdelhady Akrby, Mousa Fakhry, Mohamed Mostafa
J. Geogr. Cartogr. 2021 , 4(2);    799 Views
Abstract This article explored mineral resources and their relation to structural settings in the Central Eastern Desert (CED) of Egypt. Integration of remote sensing (RS) with aeromagnetic (AMG) data was conducted to generate a mineral predictive map. Several image transformation and enhancement techniques were performed to Landsat Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data. Using band ratios and oriented principal component analysis (PCA) on OLI data allowed delineating hydrothermal alteration zones (HAZs) and highlighted structural discontinuity. Moreover, processing of the AMG using Standard Euler deconvolution and residual magnetic anomalies successfully revealed the subsurface structural features. Zones of hydrothermal alteration and surface/subsurface geologic structural density maps were combined through GIS technique. The results showed a mineral predictive map that ranked from very low to very high probability. Field validation allowed verifying the prepared map and revealed several mineralized sites including talc, talc-schist, gold mines and quartz veins associated with hematite. Overall, integration of RS and AMG data is a powerful technique in revealing areas of potential mineralization involved with hydrothermal processes.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 1310
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by Jiazhi Qie, Yong Qie
J. Geogr. Cartogr. 2021 , 4(2);    797 Views
Abstract Flash flood is one of the major natural hazards in China. It seriously threatens the lives of people and property in mountainous areas. Various methods have been developed for flash flood study, but most of them focused on the past few decades. As one of the effective methods of historical flash flood events reconstruction, dendrogeomorphology has been used worldwide. It can provide hazard information with long temporal scale and high temporal resolution, sometimes at the seasonal level. By comparing tree ring width and other growth characteristics between disturbed and undisturbed trees, growth disturbance signals can be found in the disturbed trees. Using the growth disturbance in tree rings, flash flood events can be dated, and then the frequency, size, and spatial distribution characteristics of flash floods that have no or little documentary records can be reconstructed. The discharge of flash flood can be reconstructed quantitatively according to the height of scars or by using hydraulic models. With the development of dendrogeomorphology, research tends to probe into the meteorological driving mechanism of flash floods and the pattern of flash floods on a larger spatial scale. In the practical application of dendrogeomorphology, more instrumental data and historical records are applied in the studies. This makes the method increasingly more widely used around the world. But work based on dendrogeomorphology has not been reported in China. In this article, we reviewed the development of the study on flash floods based on tree ring, briefly summarized the research progress, and discussed the advantages, limitations, and potential of this approach, so as to provide some reference information for relevant work in China.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 443
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by Gemma Aiello
J. Geogr. Cartogr. 2021 , 4(2);    1171 Views
Abstract A geologic and geomorphologic study aimed at solving some geological and geotechnical problems, regarding the massive seepage of meteoric waters in the coastal cliffs of the Island of Procida (Naples Bay, Southern Italy) composed of both tuffs and loose pyroclastic deposits, has been carried out in the geosites of Terra Murata (Middle Ages village and coastal cliff towards the Corricella Bay) and Centane-Panoramica (coastal cliff facing on the Tyrrhenian Sea). A detailed geologic and geomorphologic survey has allowed to suggest solutions to the applied geological and geotechnical problems related to the occurrence of massive seepages of waters at the physical interface between pyroclastic rocks and loose pyroclastic deposits, characterized by different density, permeability and porosity and also controlled by a dense network of fractures, involving the pyroclastic deposits cropping out in the selected areas. Field sampling and geotechnical laboratory analyses have been carried out to calculate the values of main geotechnical parameters of the yellow tuffs cropping out at the Terra Murata Promontory. At the same time, a detailed monitoring of the seepages of waters has been carried out through a detailed geological survey of the tuff outcrops of the promontory. The obtained results have suggested a strong control from both the geomorphologic instability of the coastal cliff and tectonic setting. At the Centane-Panoramica geosite, the geological survey, coupled with geotechnical analyses and standard penetrometric tests, has accordingly evidenced that the geomorphologic instability was mainly concentrated in the sectors of the tuff coastal cliffs facing seawards towards the Tyrrhenian Sea.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 437
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by Sathees Kumar, Nazeer Khan
J. Geogr. Cartogr. 2021 , 4(2);    1744 Views
Abstract Land use or land cover (LU/LC) mapping serves as a kind of basic information for land resource study. Detecting and analyzing the quantitative changes along the earth’s surface has become necessary and advantageous because it can result in proper planning, which would ultimately result in improvement in infrastructure development, economic and industrial growth. The LU/LC pattern in Madurai City, Tamil Nadu, has undergone a significant change over the past two decades due to accelerated urbanization. In this study, LU/LC change dynamics were investigated by the combined use of satellite remote sensing and geographical information system. To understand the LU/LC change in Madurai City, different land use categories and their spatial as well as temporal variability have been studied over a period of seven years (1999-2006), by analyzing Landsat images for the years 1999 and 2006 respectively with the help of ArcGIS 9.3 and ERDAS Imagine 9.1 software. This results show that geospatial technology is able to effectively capture the spatio-temporal trend of the landscape patterns associated with urbanization in this region.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 740
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by Naghmah Haider, Sajjad Khan, Rehanul Haq Siddiqui, Shahid Iqbal, Nazar- UI-Haq
J. Geogr. Cartogr. 2021 , 4(2);    1552 Views
Abstract In this paper, a detailed mineralogical and genesis investigation have been carried out in the seven locations of the Iron Ore in Hazara area. Thick bedded iron ore have been observed between Kawagarh Formation and Hangu Formation i.e, Cretaceous-Paleocene boundary. At the base of Hangu Formation, variable thickness of these lateritic beds spread throughout the Hazara and Kohat-Potwar plateau. This hematite ore exists in the form of unconformity. X-ray diffraction technique (XRD), X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), detailed petroghraphic study and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques indicated that those iron bears minerals including hematite, chamosite and quartz, albite, clinochlore, illite-montmorillonite, kaolinite, calcite, dolomite, whereas ankerite are the impurities present in these beds. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) results show that the total Fe 2 O 3 ranges from 39 to 56%, with high silica and alumina ratio of less than one. Beneficiation requires for significant increase in ore grade. The petroghraphic study revealed the presence of ooids fragments as nuclei of other ooids with limited clastic supply, which indicate high energy shallow marine depositional setting under warm and humid climate. The overall results show that Langrial Iron Ore is a low-grade iron ore which can be upgraded up to 62% by applying modern mining techniques so as to fulfill steel requirements of the country.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 508
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by Sedlak Vladimír, Poljakovic Peter
J. Geogr. Cartogr. 2021 , 4(2);    1184 Views
Abstract The influence of mining activity on the environment on the environment belongs to the most negative industrial influences. Mine subsidence on the surface can be a result of many deep underground mining activities. The present study offers the theory to the specific case of the deformation vectors solution in a case of disruption of the data homogeneity of the geodetic network structure in the monitoring station during periodical measurements in mine subsidence. The theory was developed for the mine subsidence at the abandoned magnesite mine of Košice-Bankov near the city of Košice in East Slovakia. The outputs from the deformation survey were implemented into geographical information system (GIS) applications to a process of gradual reclamation of whole mining landscape in the magnesite mine vicinity. After completion of the mining operations and liquidation of the mine company, it was necessary to determine the exact edges of the mine subsidence of Košice-Bankov with the zones of residual ground motion in order to implement a comprehensive reclamation of the devastated mining landscape. Requirement of knowledge about stability of the former mine subsidence was necessary for starting the reclamation work. Outputs from the present specific solutions of the deformation vectors confirmed the multi-year stability of the mine subsidence in the area of interest. Some numerical and graphical results from the deformation vectors survey in the abandoned magnesite mine of Košice-Bankov are presented. The obtained results were transformed into GIS for the needs of the municipality of Košice City to the implementation of the reclamation activities in the mining territory of Košice-Bankov.
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Open Access
Review
Article ID: 1311
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by Jiayi Fang, Peijun Shi
J. Geogr. Cartogr. 2021 , 4(2);    1126 Views
Abstract The sea level rise under global climate change and coastal floods caused by extreme sea levels due to the high tide levels and storm surges have huge impacts on coastal society, economy, and natural environment. It has drawn great attention from global scientific researchers. This study examines the definitions and elements of coastal flooding in the general and narrow senses, and mainly focuses on the components of coastal flooding in the narrow sense. Based on the natural disaster system theory, the review systematically summarizes the progress of coastal flood research in China, and then discusses existing problems in present studies and provide future research directions with regard to this issue. It is proposed that future studies need to strengthen research on adapting to climate change in coastal areas, including studies on the risk of multi- hazards and uncertainties of hazard impacts under climate change, risk assessment of key exposure (critical infrastructure) in coastal hotspots, and cost-benefit analysis of adaptation and mitigation measures in coastal areas. Efforts to improve the resilience of coastal areas under climate change should be given more attention. The research community also should establish the mechanism of data sharing among disciplines to meet the needs of future risk assessments, so that coastal issues can be more comprehensively, systematically, and dynamically studied.
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Open Access
Review
Article ID: 618
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by Akram Karimi, Sara Abdollahi, Kaveh Ostad-Ali-Askari, Vijay P. Singh, Saeid Eslamian, Ali Heidarian, Mohsen Nekooei, Hossein Gholami, Sona Pazdar
J. Geogr. Cartogr. 2021 , 4(2);    6372 Views
Abstract Fire, a phenomenon occurs in most parts of the world and causes severe financial losses, even, irreparable damages. Many parameters are involved in the occurrence of a fire; some of which are constant over time (at least in a fire cycle), but the others are dynamic and vary over time. Unlike the earthquake, the disturbance of fire depends on a set of physical, chemical, and biological relations. Monitoring the changes to predict the occurrence of fire is efficient in forest management. Method: In this research, the Persian and English databases were structurally searched using the keywords of fire risk modeling, fire risk, fire risk prediction, remote sensing and the reviewed papers that predicted the fire risk in the field of remote sensing and geographic information system were retrieved. Then, the modeling and zoning data of fire risk prediction were extracted and analyzed in a descriptive manner. Accordingly, the study was conducted in 1995-2017. Findings: Fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP) zoning method was more practical among the applied methods and the plant moisture stress measurement was the most efficient among the remote sensing indices. Discussion and Conclusion: The findings indicate that RS and GIS are effective tools in the study of fire risk prediction.
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