Rudraksh Tiwari, Vinod Kuumar Kushwah


The changes in the magnetic flux generated (electric, magnetic and electromagnetic waves) on the surface of earth due to sudden changes is a matter of discussion. These emissions occur along the fault line generated due to geological and tectonic processes. When sudden changes occur in the environment due to seismic and atmospheric variations, these sensing was observed by creatures and human bodies because the animals and trees adopt the abnormal signals and change the behavior. We have analyzed the changing behavior of recorded signal by live sensors (i.e. banyan tree). So we use the deep rooted and long age’s banyan tree. Banyan tree (long ages) in which root has been working as a live sensor and record the geological and environmental changes. We record the low frequency signals which propagated through solar-terrestrial environment affect directly the root system of the banyan tree and changes has been observed by live sensors. Then, VLF signal ma(y propagate to the earth-ionosphere waveguide. We have also analyzed the different parameters of live cells which is inbuilt in latex of the tree, so we record the dielectric parameters of green stem latex and found some parameters i.e., dielectric constant (ε) and dielectric loss (ε’) of various trees to verify these natural hazards and found good correlation.  Therefore, we can say by regularly monitoring the bio-potential signal and dielectric properties of banyan tree we can able to find the precursory signature of seismic hazards and environmental changes.

Full Text:



A. C. Fraser-Smith, A. Bernardi, P. R. Mc Gill, M. E.Ladd, R. A. Helliwell, Jr. A. D. Villard. Low-frequency magnetic field measurements near the epicenter of the Ms= 7.1 Loma-Prieta earthquake. Geo. Phys. Res. Lett. 17, 1465, 1990.

A. C. Fraser-Smith, P. R Mc Gill, R. A. Helliwell, Jr. O. G. Villard. Ultra Low Frequency magnetic field measurements in southern California during the Northridge earthquake of 17 January 1994. Geo. Phys. Res. Lettr. (USA), 21, 2195, 1994.

M. Hayakawa, T. Itoh, K. Hattori, and K. Yumoto, ULF electromagnetic precursors for an earthquake at Biak, Indonesia on February 17, 1996, Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 10, 1531-1534, DOI: 10.1029/1999GL005432, 2000.

P. Varotsos and K. Alexopolous, Physical properties of the variations of the electric field of the earth preceding earthquakes. Tectonophysics-I, 110, 1-2, 73, 1984a.

M.B. Gokhberg, I.L. Gufeld, A.A Rozhnoy, V.F. Marenko, V.S. Yampolsky, and E.A. Ponomarev, Study of seismic influence on the ionosphere by super long wave probing of the earth-ionosphere waveguide.” Phys. Earth Planet Inter. (Netherland), 57, 64,1989.

O. A. Molchanov and M. Hayakawa. On the generation mechanism of ULF seismogenic electromagnetic emissions, Phys. Earth Planet Inter., 105, 201, 1998.

Y. I. Galprin, and M. Hayakawa. On the magnetospheric effect of experimental ground explosions observed from auroral-3 Jr. Geo. mag. Geo. electr. 48, 1241, 1996.

M. Parrot, and M. M. Mogilevsky. VLF emissions associated with earthquake observed in the ionosphere and magnetosphere. Phys. Earth Planet Inter., 57, 86, 1989.

S.K. Park , M. J. S. Johnson, T. R. Madden, F. D. Morgan, H. F. Morison. Electromagnetic precursors to earthquakes in ULF band: A review of observations and mechanism. Rev. Geophys., 31, 117-132, 1993.

O.A. Molchanov and M. Hayakawa. Generation of ULF electromagnetic emission by microfracturing, Geo. Phys. Res. Lett. 22, 3091, 1995.

A. Benardi, A.C. Fraser Smith, P. R. Mc Gill and O.G. Villiard. ULF magnetic field measurements near the epicenter of the Ms=7.1 Loma Prieta Earthquake. Journal of Physics Earth Planet. Inter,68,45, 1991.

I. L. Gufeld, G. Gusev and O. Pokhhotelov. Is the prediction of earthquake data possible by VLF radio wave monitoring method edited by M. Hayakawa and Y. Fujinaswa, TERRAPUB, Tokyo. pp. 381, 1994.

M. Hayakawa, O. A. Molchanov, T. Ondoh and E. Kawai, The precursory signature effect of Kobe earthquake on VLF sub-ionospheric signals in Journal of Physics Earth, 44, 413, 1996b.

Y. Kopytenko, V. Ismagilov, M. Hayakawa, N. Smirnova, V. Troyan, T. Peterson. Investigation of the ULF electromagnetic phenomena related to earthquake: contemporary achievements and the perspective.”Annali di Geophysica, 44, 325, 2001.

S. Ramasamy and B. Moghtaderi. Dielectric properties of typical Australian wood-based biomass materials at microwave frequency, Journal of Energy Fuels, vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 4534–4548. 2010.

A. A. Salema, Y. K. Yeow, K. Ishaque, F. N. Ani, M. T. Afzal and A. Hassan. Dielectric properties and microwave heating of oil palm biomass and biochar, Industrial Crop Production, vol. 50, pp. 366–374, 2013.

R. Omar, A. Idris, R. Yunus, K. Khalid, and M. I. A. Isma. Characterization of empty fruit bunch for microwave-assisted pyrolysis,” Fuel, vol. 90, no. 4, pp. 1536–1544, 2011.

I. Husein, S. Sadiyo, N. Nugroho , I. Wahyudi, A. Agustina, R.N. Komariah, J. Khabibi, C. Y. C. P. D. Ali, M. Iftor, T. P. Kahar, A. Wijayanto and M. Jamilah Electrical properties of Indonesian hardwood case study : Acacia Mangium , Swietenia Macrophylla and Maesopsis Eminii. Wood Res., vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 695–704, 2014.

F. Motasemi, M.T. Afzal, A.A. Salema J. Mouris and R.M. Hutcheon, Microwave dielectric characterization of switchgrass for bioenergy and biofuel, Fuel, vol. 124, pp. 151–157, 2014.

M. S. Gaur, , R.K. Tiwari, P. Shukla, P. Saxena, K. Gaur and U. Tiwari. Thermally Stimulated current analysis in human blood trends biomater., Artif. Organs. 21 (1), 8-13, 2007.

Z. Ahmad. Polymeric dielectric materials. Dielectric Material, pp. 3–26. DOI: 10.5772/50638, 2012.

B. R. Arora and B. P. Singh,in book of Himalayan seismicity edited by Gupta H K & Gupta G D, Goe Soc India Bangalore (India), Memoir. 23, 223, 1992.

V. A. Tsarev, and V. Sasaki. Low frequency seismogenic electromagnetic radiation: How does it propagate in earth’s crust and where it can be detected? In: M. Hayakawa (ed.), Atmospheric and Ionospheric Electromagnetic Phenomena Associated with Earthquakes.” Terra Scientific Publishing Co., Tokyo, 383, 1999.

S. P. Kingsley, Raio astronolmical metho of measuring the MST Radar Antenna technical report to MST Radar user community in .Nuovo Cimento Italy. 12,117,1989.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License

This site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.