Vol 5, No 1 (2022)

Table of Contents

Open Access
Original Research Article
Article ID: 1741
PDF
by Guang Yang, Chunyu Sui, Tingting Jia, Zhandong Liu, Zongguo Li, Hongguo Li
Imaging. Radiat. Res. 2022 , 5(1);    495 Views
Abstract In recent years, ghost imaging has made important progress in the field of remote sensing imaging. In order to promote the application of solar ghost imaging in this field, this paper studies the computational ghost imaging based on the incoherent light of blackbody radiation. Firstly, according to the intensity probability density function of blackbody radiation, the expression of contrast-to-noise ratio ( R CN ) describing the quality of computational ghost imaging is obtained, and then the random speckle pattern simulating blackbody radiation is generated by computer with the idea of slice sampling, finally, a digital light projector is used to modulate and generate the random modulated light that simulates the blackbody radiation light source, and this light source is used to realize the computational ghost image of the reflective object in the experiment. The “ghost image” of the object under different measurement frame numbers is reconstructed, and the contrast-to-noise ratio describing the imaging quality is measured. The results show that the image quality is relatively good when the average intensity (gray) of the randomly modulated speckle is about 160. On the other hand, the contrast-to-noise ratio of the image gradually increases from 0.8795 to 1.241, 1.516, 1.755, 2.100 and 2.371 as the number of measurement frames increases from 2,000 to 4,000, 6,000, 8,000, 12,000 and 20,000, respectively. The experimental results are basically consistent with the theoretical analysis. The results are of great significance for the application of ghost imaging with incoherent light, such as sunlight, which is approximately regarded as blackbody radiation, in the field of remote imaging.
show more
Open Access
Original Research Article
Article ID: 1743
PDF
by Luis Adrián Muñoz Andrade, Rosana Fabregas Almanza, Jeyson Eddy Roth Chuizaca, Andrea Geovanna Sanipatín Criollo
Imaging. Radiat. Res. 2022 , 5(1);    408 Views
Abstract Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) has been widely used and studied in blunt and penetrating trauma for the past 3 decades. Prior to FAST, invasive procedures such as diagnostic peritoneal lavage and exploratory laparotomy were commonly used to diagnose intra-abdominal injuries. Today, the FAST examination has evolved into a more comprehensive study of the abdomen, heart, thorax, inferior vena cava, among others, with many variations in technique, protocols and interpretation. Trauma management strategies such as laparotomy, endoscopy, computed tomography angiography, angiographic intervention, serial imaging and clinical observation have also changed over the years. This technique, at times, has managed to replace computed tomography and peritoneal lavage diagnosis, without producing delays in the surgical procedure. As such, the relationship between the patient’s clinical information and the results of the exam should be guided to guide therapeutic approaches in difficult to access settings such as intensive care units in war zones, rural or remote locations where other imaging methods are not available. This review will discuss the evolution of the FAST exam to its current status and evaluate its evolving role in the acute management of the trauma patient.
show more
Open Access
Original Research Article
Article ID: 1744
PDF
by Alberto Surur, Lucas M. Pessini Ferreira, Jorge A. Galíndez, Juan J. Martín
Imaging. Radiat. Res. 2022 , 5(1);    457 Views
Abstract Objective:  To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of the brain in patients younger than 65 years who were studied by transcranial Doppler (TCD) with microbubble contrast, with a history of cryptogenic cerebrovascular accident (CVA) and suspected patent foramen ovale (PFO). Materials and methods:  This retrospective cross-sectional study included patients of both sexes, younger than 65 years of age. Results:  Our sample (n  = 47 . 47% male and 53% female, mean age is 42 years) presented high-intensity transient signals (HITS) positive in 61.7% and HITS-negative in 38.3%. In HITS-positive patients, lesions at the level of the subcortical U-brains, single or multiple with bilaterally symmetrical distribution, predominated. In patients with moderate HITS, lesions in the vascular territory of the posterior circulation predominated. Conclusion:  In patients younger than 65 years with cryptogenic stroke and subcortical, single or multiple U-shaped lesions with bilateral and symmetrical distribution, a PFO should be considered as a possible cause of these lesions.
show more
Open Access
Original Research Article
Article ID: 1745
PDF
by Eduardo Mateos Torres, Meritxell Mellado Joan, Laura Calsina Juscafresa, Carlos Ruiz Carmona, Albert Clará Velasco
Imaging. Radiat. Res. 2022 , 5(1);    486 Views
Abstract Introduction: Stenoses in the path of arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) for hemodialysis are a very prevalent problem and there is long experience in their treatment by percutaneous angioplasty (PTA). These procedures, however, involve non-negligible equipment requirements, exposure to radiation and intravenous contrast that are not beneficial for the patient and make their performance more complex. This study reviews our initial experience with Doppler ultrasound-guided angioplasty.  Methods: Prospective cohort of patients with native AVF dysfunction due to significant venous stenosis treated by Doppler echo-guided PTA. AVF puncture, lesion catheterization, balloon localization and inflation, and outcome verification were performed under ultrasound guidance. Only one fistulography was performed before and another one after dilatation. As a control, the cases performed during the same period by the usual angiographic method were also collected.  Results: Between February 2015 and September 2018, 51 PTAs were performed on native AVF, of which 27 were echogenic (mean age, 65.3 years; 63% male). The technical success rate was 96%. In 26% of cases, PTA was repeated due to residual stenosis after angiographic imaging. There were 7.3% periprocedural complications. 92% of the AVFs were punctured at 24 hours. Primary patency at 1 month, 6 months and 1 year was 100%, 64.8% and 43.6%, and assisted patency was 100%, 87.2% and 74.8%. There were no significant differences in immediate or late results with respect to angiographically guided AVF angioplasty.  Conclusions: AVF-PTA can be performed safely and effectively guided by Doppler ultrasound, which simplifies the logistics required for its performance, although we still need to improve the capacity for early verification of the result with this imaging technique.
show more
Open Access
Original Research Article
Article ID: 1747
PDF
by Melissa Jiménez-Morales, Juan Octavio Alonso-Lárraga, José Guillermo De La Mora-Levy, Julio C Sánchez-del Monte, María del Carmen Manzano-Robleda, Armando Alonso-Martínez, Flora M Oña-Ortiz, Mauro E Ramírez-Solís, Angélica Hernández-Guerrero
Imaging. Radiat. Res. 2022 , 5(1);    491 Views
Abstract The possibility of preoperative prediction of pathologic complete response in rectal cancer has been studied in order to identify patients who would respond to neoadjuvant therapy and to individualize therapeutic strategies. Endoscopic ultrasound of the rectum is an accurate method for the evaluation of local tumor and lymph node invasion. Objective:  To evaluate the potential of endoscopic ultrasound as a predictor of complete pathological response to neoadjuvant treatment in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Material and methods:  Retrospective study of patients with rectal cancer from January 2014 to December 2016. Results:  We obtained a statistical association between T stage by endoscopic ultrasound and complete pathological response (p = 0.015). It is not so for N, sphincter involvement, circumferential involvement and maximum tumor thickness (p = 0.723, p = 0.510, p = 0.233 and p = 0.114, respectively). When multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to assess the degree of influence of the predictor variables on pathologic response, none of these variables was associated with complete pathologic response. Conclusion:  Prediction of pathologic complete response in rectal cancer has been considered as the crucial point upon which treatments for rectal cancer could be individualized. So far, no imaging method has been able to demonstrate efficacy in predicting complete pathologic response, and in turn there is no direct association between any endosonographic finding that can accurately predict it.
show more
Open Access
Review Article
Article ID: 1742
PDF
by Diego Pérez de Arenaza, Sergio Baratta, Roxana Campisi, Miguel Cerda, Adela Aguirre, Eugenia Villanueva, Alberto Fernández, César Belziti
Imaging. Radiat. Res. 2022 , 5(1);    415 Views
Abstract Amyloidosis is a systemic disorder produced by the deposition of insoluble protein fibrils that fold and deposit in the myocardium. Patients with amyloidosis and cardiac involvement have higher mortality than patients without cardiac involvement. The two most prevalent forms of amyloidosis associated with cardiac involvement are AL amyloidosis, due to the deposition of immunoglobulin light chains, and ATTR amyloidosis, due to the deposition of the transthyretin (TTR) protein in mutated or senile form. This article aims to review the different cardiac imaging modalities (echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear medicine and tomography) that allow to determine the severity of cardiac involvement in patients with amyloidosis, the type of amyloidosis and its prognosis. Finally, we suggest a diagnostic algorithm to determine cardiac involvement in amyloidosis adapted to locally available diagnostic tools, with a practical and clinical approach.
show more
Open Access
Review Article
Article ID: 1748
PDF
by Antonio J Bravo, Miguel Vera, Delia Madriz, Julio Contreras-Velásquez, José Chacón, Sandra Wilches-Durán, Modesto Graterol-Rivas, Daniela Riaño-Wilches, Joselyn Rojas, Valmore Bermúdez
Imaging. Radiat. Res. 2022 , 5(1);    555 Views
Abstract Cardiovascular imaging analysis is a useful tool for the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of cardiovascular diseases. Imaging techniques allow non-invasive quantitative assessment of cardiac function, providing morphological, functional and dynamic information. Recent technological advances in ultrasound have made it possible to improve the quality of patient treatment, thanks to the use of modern image processing and analysis techniques. However, the acquisition of these dynamic three-dimensional (3D) images leads to the production of large volumes of data to process, from which cardiac structures must be extracted and analyzed during the cardiac cycle. Extraction, three-dimensional visualization, and qua li fication tools are currently used within the clinical routine, but unfortunately require significant interaction with the physician. These elements justify the development of new efficient and robust algorithms for structure extraction and cardiac motion estimation from three-dimensional images. As a result, making available to clinicians new means to accurately assess cardiac anatomy and function from three-dimensional images represents a definite advance in the investigation of a complete description of the heart from a single examination. The aim of this article is to show what advances have been made in 3D cardiac imaging by ultrasound and additionally to observe which areas have been studied under this imaging modality.
show more
Open Access
Review Article
Article ID: 1749
PDF
by Eloy De Avila Fernandes, Samuel Brighenti Bergamaschi, Tatiane Cantarelli Rodrigues, Gustavo Coelho Dias, Ralff Malmann, Germano Martins Ramos, Soraya Silveira Monteiro
Imaging. Radiat. Res. 2022 , 5(1);    468 Views
Abstract Gout is an arthritis characterized by the deposition of sodium monoacid crystals in the synovial membrane, articular cartilage, and periarticular tissues that leads to an inflamatory process. In most cases, the diagnosis is established by clinical criteria and analysis of the synovial fluid for MSU crystals. However, gout may manifest in atypical ways and make diagnosis difficult. In these situations, imaging studies play a fundamental role in helping to confirm the diagnosis or even exclude other differential diagnoses. Conventional radiography is still the most commonly used method in the follow-up of these patients, but it is a very insensitive test, because it only detects late changes. In recent years, advances in imaging methods have emerged in relation to gout. Ultrasound has proven to be a highly accurate test in the diagnosis of gout, identifying MSU deposits in articular cartilage and periarticular tissues, and detecting and characterizing tophi, tendinopathies, and tophi enthesopathies. Computed tomography is an excellent exam for the detection of bone erosions and evaluation of spinal involvement. Dual-energy computed tomography, a new method that provides information on the chemical composition of tissues, allows identification of MSU deposits with high accuracy. MRI can be useful in the evaluation of deep tissues not accessible by ultrasound. In addition to diagnosis, with the emergence of drugs that aim to reduce the tophaceous burden, imaging examinations become a useful tool in the follow-up treatment of gout patients.
show more
Open Access
Case Report
Article ID: 1746
PDF
by Ignacio Villanueva Bendek, Mauricio Ruiz, Lia Vega
Imaging. Radiat. Res. 2022 , 5(1);    377 Views
Abstract Vascular access in hemodialysis is one of the pillars of success of the program. Therefore, efforts should be directed firstly to achieve the greatest number of vascular accesses of the arteriovenous fistula type, and secondly to reduce complications related to access cannulation in order to functionally preserve the access. Several strategies have been described to improve this last aspect; this article describes the use of ultrasound to improve the probability of successful cannulation in cases considered difficult by the nursing team.
show more