Vol 6, No 1 (Published)

Table of Contents

Open Access
Editorial
Article ID: 3492
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by Zeng Hong
Therm. Sci. Eng. 2023 , 6(1);    84 Views
Abstract N/A
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Open Access
Editorial
Article ID: 2018
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by Muhammad Hilmy Alfaruqi
Therm. Sci. Eng. 2023 , 6(1);    245 Views
Abstract N/A
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Open Access
Review Article
Article ID: 1950
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by Adel Razek
Therm. Sci. Eng. 2023 , 6(1);    411 Views
Abstract This contribution aims to appraise, analyze and evaluate the literature relating to the interaction of electromagnetic fields (EMF) with matter and the resulting thermal effects. This relates to the wanted thermal effects via the application of fields as well as those uninvited resulting from exposure to the field. In the paper, the most popular EMF heating technologies are analyzed. This involves on the one hand high frequency induction heating (HFIH) and on the other hand microwave heating (MWH), including microwave ovens and hyperthermia medical treatment. Then, the problem of EMF exposure is examined and the resulting biological thermal effects are illuminated. Thus, the two most common cases of wireless EMF devices, namely digital communication tools and inductive power transfer appliances are analyzed and evaluated. The last part of the paper concerns the determination of the different thermal effects, which are studied and discussed, by considering the governing EMF and heat transfer (or bio heat) equations and their solution methodologies.
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Open Access
Review Article
Article ID: 2235
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by Derek Bradley, Junfeng Yang
Therm. Sci. Eng. 2023 , 6(1);    168 Views
Abstract The paper examines the underlying science determining the performance of hybrid engines. It scrutinizes a full range of orthodox gasoline engine performance data, drawn from two sources, and how it would be modified by hybrid gasoline vehicle engine operation. The most significant change would be the elimination of the negative consequences of urban congestion, stop-start, and engine driving, in favour of a hybrid electric motor drive. At intermediate speeds there can be other instances where electric motors might give a more efficient drive than an engine. Hybrid operation is scrutinised and the electrical losses estimated. There also remains scope for improvements in engine combustion. 
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Open Access
Original Research Article
Article ID: 1931
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by Markus Lehner, Philipp Biegger, Ana Roza Medved
Therm. Sci. Eng. 2023 , 6(1);    340 Views
Abstract The conversion of the energy supply to renewable sources (wind, photovoltaics) will increase the volatility in electricity generation in the future. In order to ensure a balanced power balance in the power grid, storage is required - not only for a short time, but also seasonally. The bidirectional coupling of existing energy infrastructure with the power grid can help here by using the electricity in electrolysis systems to produce hydrogen. The hydrogen can be mixed with natural gas in the existing infrastructure (gas storage, pipelines) to a limited extent or converted directly to methane in a gas-catalytic reaction, methanation, with carbon dioxide and/or carbon monoxide. By using the natural gas infrastructure, the electricity grids are relieved and renewable energies can also be stored over long periods of time. Another advantage of this technology, known as “Power-to-Gas”, is that the methane produced in this way represents a sink for CO 2 emissions, as it replaces fossil sources and CO 2 is thus fed into a closed cycle. Research in the field of Power-to-Gas technology is currently addressing technological advances both in the field of electrolysis and for the subsequent methanation, in particular to reduce investment costs. In the field of methanation, load-flexible processes are to be developed that are adapted to the fluctuating supply of hydrogen. The profitability of the Power-to-Gas process chain can be increased through synergistic integration into existing industrial processes. For example, an integrated smelting works offers a promising infrastructural environment, since, on the one hand, process gases containing carbon are produced in large quantities and, on the other hand, the oxygen as a by-product from the water electrolysis can be used directly. Such concepts suggest an economic application of Power-to-Gas technology in the near future.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
Article ID: 1996
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by Manoharan Madhiarasan
Therm. Sci. Eng. 2023 , 6(1);    365 Views
Abstract Energy monitoring facilitates quick access and helps to know the power utilization and normal and abnormal conditions. Nowadays, many applications and majorly industries face problems regarding power quality. In the power system, the power factor plays a vital role in power quality. The addition of capacitance overcomes the decay of the power factor and reduces the power loss. This paper aims to build an automatic power factor correction (APFC) system, which can monitor the energy consumption of a system and automatically improve its power factor. In the design, an opensource energy monitoring library has been implemented for accurate power calculations. This paper carried out the work of hardware experimentation of energy monitoring and automatic power factor correction using a capacitor bank with the association of Internet of Things (IoT) technology. Build a mobile application to more simply and comfortablely monitor power and correct automatically. The developed hardware model’s performance is validated with and without load conditions. The result proves that the designed Raspberry Pi-based energy monitoring and automatic power factor correction system outperforms to improve the power factor without human interaction by properly switching the capacitor bank. Hence, the power loss, penalty, and power quality-related problems were resolved based on the proposed approach. The proposed design is compact, simple, and easy to implement and aids in power system advancement.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
Article ID: 2000
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by Hayat Arbouz
Therm. Sci. Eng. 2023 , 6(1);    367 Views
Abstract In this paper, we modeled and simulated two tandem solar cell structures (a) and (b), in a two-terminal configuration based on inorganic and lead-free absorber materials. The structures are composed of sub-cells already studied in our previous work, where we simulated the impact of defect density and recombination rate at the interfaces, as well as that of the thicknesses of the charge transport and absorber layers, on the photovoltaic performance. We also studied the performance resulting from the use of different materials for the electron and hole transport layers. The two structures studied include a bottom cell based on the perovskite material CsSnI 3  with a band gap energy of 1.3 eV and a thickness of 1.5 µm. The first structure has an upper sub-cell based on the CsSnGeI 3  material with an energy of 1.5 eV, while the second has an upper sub-cell made of Cs 2 TiBr 6  with a band gap energy of 1.6 eV. The theoretical model used to evaluate the photocurrent density, current-voltage characteristic, and photovoltaic parameters of the constituent sub-cells and the tandem device was described. Current matching analysis was performed to find the ideal combination of absorber thicknesses that allows the same current density to be shared. An efficiency of 29.8% was obtained with a short circuit current density J sc  = 19.92 mA/cm 2 , an open circuit potential V oc  = 1.46 V and a form factor FF = 91.5% with the first structure (a), for a top absorber thickness of CsSnGeI 3  of 190 nm, while an efficiency of 26.8% with J sc  = 16.74, V oc  = 1.50 V and FF = 91.4% was obtained with the second structure (b), for a top absorber thickness of Cs 2 TiBr 6  of 300 nm. The objective of this study is to develop efficient, low-cost, stable and non-toxic tandem devices based on lead-free and inorganic perovskite.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
Article ID: 2100
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by Xinyi Cheng, Yujiao Shang, Tuan Pan
Therm. Sci. Eng. 2023 , 6(1);    204 Views
Abstract The article combines the two main development lines of digital inclusive finance and high-quality economic development in the new era, with 41 cities in the Yangtze River Delta region as the research object. The digital inclusive finance development index is used to measure the level of digital inclusive finance development in cities, and the entropy weight TOPSIS method is used to measure the level of high-quality economic development in cities. A panel model is used to analyze the impact of digital inclusive finance on high-quality economic development. The conclusion is that the development level of digital inclusive finance is on the rise in all cities, but the regional development imbalance is also very obvious. Digital inclusive development has a positive promoting effect on the high-quality economic development of the Yangtze River Delta region. In addition, there is regional heterogeneity in the promoting effect of digital inclusive finance on high-quality economic development. With the improvement of urban level in the Yangtze River Delta region, the promoting effect of digital inclusive finance on high-quality economic development continues to improve. To this end, relevant policy recommendations are proposed. Firstly, to accelerate the development of digital finance and promote highquality economic development. Secondly, to increase government investment and strengthen new infrastructure construction. Thirdly, to focus on information technology construction and enhance the level of digital technology. Fourthly, to deepen regional coordinated development and improve the quality of economic development.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
Article ID: 2136
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by Mohammad Ali Nasle Seraji, Zohreh Ranjbar, Mansour Keshavarzzadeh, Shirin Mousavi, Rahim Zahedi
Therm. Sci. Eng. 2023 , 6(1);    439 Views
Abstract The use of different energy sources and the worry of running out of some of them in the modern world have made factors such as environmental pollution and even energy sustainability vital. Vital resources for humanity include water, environment, food, and energy. As a result, building strong trust in these resources is crucial because of their interconnected nature. Sustainability in security of energy, water and food, generally decreases costs and improves durability. This study introduces and describes the components of a system named “Desktop Energetic Dark Greenhouse” in the context of the quadruple nexus of water, environment, food, and energy in urban life. This solution can concurrently serve to strengthen the sustainable security of water, environment, food, and energy. For home productivity, a small-scale version of this project was completed. The costs and revenues for this system have been determined after conducting an economic study from the viewpoints of the investor and the average household. The findings indicate that the capital return period is around five years from the investor’s perspective. The capital return on investment for this system is less than 4 years from the standpoint of the households. According to the estimates, this system annually supplies about 20 kg of vegetables or herbs, which means about one third of the annual needs of a family.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
Article ID: 2052
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by Tayssir Hamieh
Therm. Sci. Eng. 2023 , 6(1);    302 Views
Abstract This paper is devoted to the determination of the dispersive component of the surface energy of two boron materials such as h-BN and BPO 4  surfaces by using the inverse gas chromatography (IGC) at infinite dilution. The specific interactions and Lewis’s acid-base parameters of these materials were calculated on the light of the new thermal model concerning the dependency of the surface area of organic molecules on the temperature, and by using also the classical methods of the inverse gas chromatography as well as the different molecular models such as Van der Waals, Redlich-Kwong, Kiselev, geometric, Gray, spherical, cylindrical and Hamieh models. It was proved that h-BN surface exhibits higher dispersive surface energy than BPO 4  material. The specific properties of interaction of the two boron materials were determined. The results obtained by using the new thermal model taking into account the effect of the temperature on the surface area of molecules, proved that the classical IGC methods, gave inaccurate values of the specific parameters and Lewis’s acid base constants of the solid surfaces. The use of the thermal model allowed to conclude that h-BN surface has a Lewis basicity twice stronger than its acidity, whereas, BPO 4  surface presents an amphoteric character.
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Open Access
Brief Commentary
Article ID: 1992
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by Adel Razek
Therm. Sci. Eng. 2023 , 6(1);    398 Views
Abstract There are diverse effects in consequence of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). The interactions of fields and the exposed body tissues are related to the nature of exposure, tissue comportment, field strength and signal frequency. These interactions can crop different effects.
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