Vol 7, No 1 (2024)

Table of Contents

Open Access
Article
Article ID: 3888
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by Khairul Alam
Nat. Resour. Conserv. Res. 2024 , 7(1);    510 Views
Abstract Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) refers to the knowledge, innovations, and practices of indigenous and local communities around the world. As it includes proven technologies for particular situations, its adoption cuts research costs and time. This paper attempts to find out the scoping of some TEKs on different practices ranging from plain land agriculture, hill farming, agro-biodiversity management, open water fish conservation, disaster management, and other aspects in different situations in Bangladesh. It is an outcome of the authors’ field experiences in the study of local flora, plant uses, and natural resource management practices in the community and a review of related literature. Access to modern facilities, urbanization, and land use changes are now causing many threats to TEK. Documentation and codification of this knowledge and its uses for sustainable development are needed for the betterment of local farmers as well as the preservation of cultural heritage. The knowledge is always changing to cope with socio-cultural needs. So, a fusion of TEK and modern scientific knowledge can help solve the problems encountered in the sustainable management of natural resources. It also needs to be incorporated into school curricula and mainstreamed in the local-level natural resource management planning process. The best practices can also be adopted in natural resource management.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 4477
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by Saurabh Kumar Gupta, Shruti Kanga, Suraj Kumar Singh
Nat. Resour. Conserv. Res. 2024 , 7(1);    278 Views
Abstract Background: Dharoi Reservoir, located in Gujarat, India, is a vital freshwater resource supporting agriculture, industry, and local communities. Chl-a, a key indicator of water quality, reflects the trophic state and ecological balance of aquatic systems. Objective(s): This study aims to provide comprehensive insights into the water quality dynamics of Dharoi Reservoir, offering valuable information for environmental management and sustainable water resource planning. Methods: This study employs high-resolution Sentinel-2 satellite imagery to analyze Chl-a concentrations in the reservoir during October 2020. The Chl-a index, calculated by dividing Sentinel-2 bands B5 and B4, reveals a spatial distribution of Chl-a concentrations. Results: The Chl-a index ranges from 73.78 to 100. The mean Chl-a index is 91.6 with a standard deviation of 3.27, indicating elevated and variable Chl-a concentrations. Conclusions: The findings contribute to the understanding of the reservoir’s ecological health and assist in making informed decisions for water quality management. This research exemplifies the integration of remote sensing technology and environmental stewardship, promoting sustainable water management practices in the region. Policy recommendations: No policy recommendations are explicitly stated in the abstract, but they could be inferred from the conclusions. For example, one possible policy recommendation is to monitor and regulate the sources of nutrient inputs into the reservoir, such as agricultural runoff, sewage, and industrial effluents, to reduce the risk of eutrophication and algal blooms. Another possible policy recommendation is to implement adaptive management strategies that consider the seasonal and spatial variability of Chl-a concentrations and their impacts on water quality and availability.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 4925
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by Ritu Singh Rajput, Anuj Kumar
Nat. Resour. Conserv. Res. 2024 , 7(1);    69 Views
Abstract Resource recovery systems for microalgae and cyanobacteria could substantially advance the recovery of nutrients from waste water by reaching the rate of effluent nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) below the current technology limits. However, the efficient introduction of phytoplankton involves the creation of process models that retain efficiency and simplicity in order to effectively replicate complex performance in response to environmental conditions. This research synthesises the variety of model structures that have gained from the modelling of algae and cyanobacteria and the key model features needed to allow reliable process modelling in water resource recovery facilities. Processes of cyanobacteria, including comprehensive growth prediction guidelines (under phototrophic, heterotrophic and mixotrophic conditions), nutrient absorption, carbon absorption and accumulation, and respiration are provided.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 4483
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by Ritesh Joshi, Kanchan Puri
Nat. Resour. Conserv. Res. 2024 , 7(1);    65 Views
Abstract Concerns for the environment in India have led to increasing calls to sensitize youth through Environment Education and strengthen their skills which focus on environmentally conscious sustainable future. Green skilled people with expertise in environment management/conservation along with commitment will help in achieving the sustainable development goals. Uttarakhand region of India harbours rich biodiversity that fulfil the needs of local people. Utilizing the potential of ‘Rural Technology’ for developing green skills in the region will help in livelihood sustainability in Uttarakhand. This short communication highlights about the opportunities in Rural Technology used for green skills and livelihood sustainability in Uttarakhand of Indian Himalayan Region.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 5292
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by Raphael Segun Bello, Abel Olajide Olorunnisola, Temidayo Emmanuel Omoniyi, Musiliu Ademuiwa Onilude
Nat. Resour. Conserv. Res. 2024 , 7(1);    82 Views
Abstract Briquettes from raw biomass exhibit smokiness and emits irritant gases. Technical solutions were found in feedstock pretreatment and appropriate binder selection, which this study investigated. Torrefaction and fermentation pretreatments and used printing paper (UPP), newsprint (Np), and clay (C) were selected for experimentation. Samples of Gmelina arborea sawdust (GaS) collected from sawmills were characterized using the ASTM standards. Hollow briquettes were produced at 10:90%, 20:80%, 30:70%, 40:60%, and 50:50% feedstock/binder mixes. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA at α 0.05 . Results showed that torrefaction yield increased with torrefaction time, particle density increased with fermentation time but decreased with torrefaction time. Proximate values significantly differ for torrefied and fermented GaS, while heating value (HHV) increased with residence for torrefied and fermented briquettes. Torrefied UPP briquettes produced non-luminous flame and less smoke. Clay briquettes, however, had charred combustion. Fuel consumption increased with binder concentration but decreased with an increase in residence time.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 2219
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by Bhawna Vispute, Rajendra Pawar
Nat. Resour. Conserv. Res. 2024 , 7(1);    40 Views
Abstract To find the alternatives to the non renewable energy sources are futures demand and disposal of plastic waste is today’s need. Recovery of fuel oil from waste plastic gives the best option on both problems facing all over the world. The present experimental study deals with to analyze the performance and combustion parameters of oil synthesized by catalytic pyrolysis of waste polyethene; as it can be an alternative to diesel which is non renewable energy resource. Commercial diesel blend with condensed plastic oil as well as with residual plastic oil in the ratio of 10% (diesel 90% and plastic oil 10%), 20% (diesel 80% and plastic oil 20), 30% (diesel 70% and plastic oil 30%) and 50% (diesel 50% and plastic oil 50%) in volume. Combustion analysis and performance studies was carried out at 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% load condition in internal combustion engine set up under test is Kirloskar TV1 to understand the feasibility of utilizing plastic oil as substitute fuel to commercial diesel. This study proved that 50% blending gives satisfactory results for performance and combustion parameters than 100% use of commercial diesel.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 4913
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by Talita Nogueira Terra, Rozely Ferreira dos Santos, Rubens Augusto Camargo Lamparello
Nat. Resour. Conserv. Res. 2024 , 7(1);    81 Views
Abstract There are many studies about soil organic carbon (SOC) around the world but, in extensive territories, it is more difficult to obtain data due to the number of variables involved in the models and their high cost. In large regions with poor infrastructure, low-cost SOC models are needed. With this in mind, our objective was to estimate the SOC using a simple model based on soil textural data. The work was focused on savanna soil and validated the model in the Brazilian Savanna. Two models were constructed, one for topsoil (0–0.3 m) and other for subsoil (0.3–1.0 m). The SOC models can be carried out in a textural triangle together with SOC values. The results showed that subsoil models were more accurate than topsoil models, but both had good performance. The models give support to SOC-related preliminary research in gross and fast estimates, requiring only reduced financial contribution to calculate SOC in a large region of interest.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 4940
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by Gerasimina-Theodora Zapanti, Ioannis Theodoulou, Kyriakos Antonopoulos, Constantina Skanavis
Nat. Resour. Conserv. Res. 2024 , 7(1);    98 Views
Abstract Ports are some of the most significant entry points for Greek tourism investments and can be characterized as “development tools” for the country, both at the local and national level. The blue economy is a recent example of economic development, globally promoted as a way to achieve sustainability in maritime and coastal areas. Linaria Port has been accredited by the United Nations as a “The blue port with a shade of green,” constituting an environmentally sustainable community capable of promoting responsible environmental behavior both within the local community and among tourists. The port has been highly competitive in achieving high sustainability standards and mainly operates in ways that complement environmental quality. It has presented innovative, competitive, and sustainable solutions since 2010. This research aimed to collect primary and secondary data on tourist preferences to evaluate these services. Evaluation was conducted through anonymous questionnaires divided into two parts: the first part concerned the tourist profile, and the second part concerned tourists’ opinions on the services and facilities of the Port and the island. In the evaluation of the port, 91% of respondents rated the marina positively compared to other ports in the country, while 77% ranked the port of Skyros in a good position compared to other European or international ports. The overall quality of the tourist product was positively evaluated at 89%, while 90% of visitors were generally satisfied with the overall services offered. Moreover, 95% would return to Skyros within the next years.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 5536
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by Jyoti Bhattacharjee, Subhasis Roy
Nat. Resour. Conserv. Res. 2024 , 7(1);    55 Views
Abstract In the new era of technologies, different smart or responsive materials are used which can respond to external stimuli, such as a specific amount of mechanical stress, pressure, temperature, pH, or sunlight radiations, by modifying their shape or dimensions or mechanical properties. As global temperatures rise and weather patterns become more erratic and severe. The risk to communities with energy-passive structures is growing, smart materials such as smart rooftops, thermoelectrics, photovoltaics, pyroelectrics, chromoactive, photoluminescent, as well as other innovations, help to conserve renewable energy smartly and sustainably. This review paper reflects on the applications of different smart materials as renewable smart resources. Intelligent quantum dot solar cells, Schottky solar cells, organic thin-film photovoltaic cells, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), and organic-inorganic heterojunction solar cells have high conversion efficiency, low cost, and possess wide absorption spectra that reach the near-infrared range. Biomechanical energy can be transformed into green energy using triboelectric and piezoelectric-based smart nanogenerators such as zinc oxide nanowires. Shape memory materials such as Nitinol (NiTi) have been embedded in the wind turbine blades to enhance aerodynamic efficiency. Piezoelectric nanogenerators can convert mechanical energy directly into electrical energy by using wireless sensors to harvest energy from moving water in hydroelectric power plants. Thermoelectric materials such as silver antimony telluride (AgSbTe2) offer a sustainable energy option, which employs industrial waste heat to produce power. Smart materials like graphene are more reliable and effective than carbon nanotubes for storing green hydrogen. Smart non-enzymatic biofuel cells are used in biomedical gadgets such as anesthesia machines and pacemakers, which are self-powered and have great sensitivity. Shape memory materials (SMM) are introduced in natural gas and oil reservoirs because they offer exceptional qualities such as the shape memory effect (SME), lightweight, corrosion resistance, and superelasticity, which enhance the performance and robustness of offshore industries. These new advancements, challenges, and applications of smart materials for renewable energy are covered in this review paper.
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Open Access
Review
Article ID: 4353
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by Robert Sourokou, Fifanou G. Vodouhe, Jacob A. Yabi
Nat. Resour. Conserv. Res. 2024 , 7(1);    190 Views
Abstract Forest degradation is one of the challenges facing the planet today. Several methods have been used to measure forest degradation, including spatiotemporal model analysis, satellite analysis, remote sensing, time series data, geospatial techniques, and most recently aerial drone imagery. However, few studies have used economic valuation methods to assess forest degradation. Therefore, this research aimed to identify the methods used the economic assessment of forest degradation. This systematic review was carried out using PRISMA guidelines. Research articles on the economic valuation of forest resource loss, published from 2015 to 2022, were electronically collected from three databases. Three independent reviewers, with the third acting as referee, inventoried articles, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias in the articles included in the study. A total of 10,095 articles were identified, including one article from the grey literature. Only five articles met the eligibility criteria. A qualitative content analysis was performed on the extracted data. The selected articles used various methods. However, only a few articles used the contingent valuation method, even though this is indicated for estimating the highest economic value of forests. Based on forest functions, the articles evaluated erosion due to the absence of trees, wood loss, recreation areas and externalities due to forest loss, air quality, water regulation, food supply, and wildlife. The main limitation of this review was the small number of studies included, which may have affected the findings. The study protocol is registered in PROSPERO under the number CRD42021223242
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Open Access
Review
Article ID: 4452
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by Moses Fayiah, Muloma Seibatu Fayiah
Nat. Resour. Conserv. Res. 2024 , 7(1);    118 Views
Abstract Sierra Leone is among the few countries endowed with substantial mineral resources deposits in Africa. This review throws light on the long- and short-term positive impact of the mining sector in Sierra Leone. Over the past decade, the revenue derived from mineral mining has had little impact on the economic development of the country. According to history, extensive mineral mining operations is traced back to the early 1930s. Nonetheless, the inception of mineral extractions in Sierra Leone has been characterized by political instability, war, biodiversity loss, corruption, hardship among others. Based on available literature, mineral extraction in Sierra Leone has directly or indirectly impacted the 1), environment (ecosystem and biodiversity) 2), governance and leadership (stakeholder’s consultation) and 3) economic growth and development. The common negative impact are environmental pollution, degradation and social issues such as sexual violence, teenage pregnancy, early marriage, prostitutions, school dropout and spread of transmissible diseases among other issues. The source of data for this review was acquired from the secondary source. Information was source from both published and unpublished materials of interest. Key words such as mineral mining, mineral resources, mining benefits, mining policies, mining challenges were searched for important information on the subject matter. In some mining edge communities across Sierra Leone, protest and other human right abuses perpetrated by company’s authorities and security officials is common within these communities in Sierra Leone. On the other hand, mineral mining has served as a means of sustainable livelihood booster for deprived mining edge communities in Sierra Leone. Additionally, some mining edge communities in Serra Leone enjoy better economic conditions from the cooperate social responsibility (CSR) scheme of most mining companies. Alternately, mineral mining has also been a source of political tension and tradeoff between local resident and mining companies/governments. To remedy this situation, the government in recent years, has enacted many policies, legislations and regulations that supports the judicious extraction and management of minerals for the benefits of all in Sierra Leone. It is therefore recommended that, best international practices and standard operating procedures related to mining extraction be adopted and applied across all mining sites in Sierra Leone. This will help in mitigating the human right abuses trade-off between mining communities and mining companies for a better future.
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Open Access
Review
Article ID: 5137
PDF
by Muhammad Asif, Mohammad Siddique, Ghulam Mustafa Khan, Abdul Munim Sahito, Saadatullah Khan Suri, Sayed Tayyab, Nazia Karamat
Nat. Resour. Conserv. Res. 2024 , 7(1);    69 Views
Abstract This paper summarizes research on environmentally friendly and low embodied energy construction materials. Embedded electricity is defined and addressed in terms of building running power, and its significance is increasing as a result the Energy Buildings Performance Directive (EBPD) adoption in the European continent, for instance. The problems of calculating Energy that is embodied through comparison of current data are examined, along with a concrete instance of a novel approach presented in different literature. The link between embodied energy and embodied CO 2 , also known as carbon footprint, is illustrated. The literature discusses a wide range of low-carbon materials, including concrete and cement, as well as hardwood, stones, rammed earth, and even brickwork. The study focuses on prior research efforts to create new substances with lower contained power. To conclude, the research investigates the effects of material substitution on a building’s internal energy.
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Open Access
Review
Article ID: 5479
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by Priyanka Baduni, R.K. Maikhuri, Girish Chandra Bhatt, Harendra Rawat, Ravindra Singh, C.P. Semwal, Ashok Kumar Meena
Nat. Resour. Conserv. Res. 2024 , 7(1);    72 Views
Abstract Globally food and nutrition insecurity remain a serious challenge however the situation is more sever to the groups of people living under marginal and disadvantaged society. The causes of food and nutrition insecurity are multifaceted and complex, and influenced by a range of factors including high poverty, natural resource degradation, climate change, low level of market development, uncertain food support, and inadequate policy and institutional support. Considering the acute shortage of food and nutrition facing by global population, strengthening food and nutritional security is crucial in order to feed the ever-growing world population. One of the promising approaches of promoting millets, which requires low external inputs, a novel candidate for nutrients and adapted to thrive in harsh and dry environment. These crops play an important role in global food and nutrition security, and may have potential to contribute to sustainable food systems under changing climatic conditions. Keeping in view the importance of the millets in diversifying diet as well as a source of rich nutrition, we conducted an analysis by reviewing the research articles/reports/books as well as online databases to identify the prospects of millets crops crucial for continuous supply of food and nutrition, traditionally managed genetic resources for future crop improvement and making agricultural system resilient under changing climatic conditions. Evidences suggested from the meta-analysis that as a product of generations of agricultural landrace, there are range of millet crops are rich in nutrients, resilient, and adapted to location specific agricultural environments. Such millet crops in the existing cropping systems could support diverse food systems and nutrient suppliers and represent a broad gene pool to improving crops with suitable genetic interventions in the future. The study advocates for advancement in genomics coupled with molecular breeding for improving the genetic potential of millet crops and open avenues for developing sustainable food systems. The study also emphasis on developing strategies and roadmap for future research engagement and a policy interface to facilitate conservation and management of traditional landraces and associated indigenous knowledge of cultivation and consumption while adopting sustainable production of millet crops under marginal environmental conditions.
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Open Access
Review
Article ID: 5420
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by Nicola Cantasano
Nat. Resour. Conserv. Res. 2024 , 7(1);    6 Views
Abstract The Mediterranean Sea is one of the most important biodiversity hotspots worldwide. The high biodiversity level of the basin is confirmed by the presence of about 17,000 marine species of which 20.2% are endemics. Amongst them, Posidonia oceanica (Linnaeus) Delile can form, in pristine coastal waters, large and extensive meadows, performing a pivotal role in endemic processes. However, the richness of marine biota is, actually, affected by some threats such as habitat loss, marine pollution, climate changes, eutrophication and the establishment of invasive alien species coming from the Indo-Pacific region through the pathway of Suez Canal. This trend could lead to a new kind of marine biodiversity influenced by the introduction of termophilic species altering the pattern of Mediterranean biota. Anyway, it is necessary a global approach, ensuring the better ecological conditions so to protect marine biodiversity in meditrranean seawaters.
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