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Author Guidelines

Author Guidelines

Please carefully check that your manuscript has been prepared in accordance to the step-by-step instructions provided before submitted to our online submission system. This following guide and new manuscript template is updated and prepared specifically for people who is going to contribute or edit the manuscripts that will be published in Trends in Immunotherapy since 2023 Volume 7 Issue 2. Manuscripts submitted or in process before 2023 Volume 7 Issue 1 (including 2023 Vol.7 No.1) should be still referred to the previous author guidelines for further processing.

Manuscript Format

  • Your manuscript should be in MS Word format. You are advised to download the document, EnPress Manuscript Submission Template, as a template or for more details on preparing your submissions for consideration.
  • Authors must make sure that the manuscripts are written in clear and comprehensible English. Trends in Immunotherapy accept manuscripts written in either American or British English. Non-English words usage must be kept to a minimum.
  • Authors whose first language is not English may want to have their manuscripts professionally edited before the final submission to ensure that the academic content of the paper is fully understood by its prospective readers.

Cover letter

All submissions should include a cover letter as a separate file. Authors should note that the cover letter is an important document that would provide all the information about the novelty and importance of your findings. It also functions as a proof that the author has approved the submission of the article and that it has not been submitted to other journals simultaneously.

Please find below for the completed declarations section required to be include in the manuscript or cover letter.

Conflict of interests: MS is an employee of XXX. BF has received grants from XXX.

Informed consent: Written informed consent was obtained from all subjects before the study.

Ethical approval: The ethics committee of XXXX approved this study (REC number: XXXX).

Trial registration: Name of trial registry: Trial registration number

Author contributions: For research articles with several authors, a short paragraph specifying their individual contributions must be provided. The following statements should be used “Conceptualization, XX and YY; methodology, XX; software, XX; validation, XX, YY and ZZ; formal analysis, XX; investigation, XX; resources, XX; data curation, XX; writing—original draft preparation, XX; writing—review and editing, XX; visualization, XX; supervision, XX; project administration, XX; funding acquisition, YY. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.”

A well written cover letter would provide an opportunity to convince journal editors to consider the article for publication. The author’s cover letters will only be read by the editors and will be kept strictly confidential. It will not be shared with the reviewers.

Below is an example of all the information that should ideally be included in your cover letter:

  1. Why is your study important and relevant to the journal that you are submitting it to?
  2. State the question that leads to the results of your research clearly.
  3. What are your major experimental results and the overall significant findings?
  4. Important conclusions that can be drawn from your research.
  5. A self-written statement that the manuscripts have not yet been published in any other journal and also are not under consideration for publication in any journal other than Trends in Immunotherapy.
  6. Any additional details that you feel would encourage the editor to send your article for review.


Authors should avoid the usage of excessive uncommon jargons that may not be understood by the target audience. Avoid titles that are too long and ensure that it is less than 50 words. Remember to spell out any acronyms first before using it throughout your article as this may help the readers who are not familiar with the meanings of the words. Also avoid irony, puns or humour in the title as it may not be understood by non-native speaking readers and it also tends to be more culture-specific, hence not being suitable for a broad audience.

List of Authors

Authors’ names should be spelled out fully instead of only listing their initials with their respective affiliations included in the footnotes. It must be ensured that the authors of a particular manuscript are listed based on the extent of their contribution and the major contributor should be listed first. Corresponding authors (maximum 2) must be identified with an asterisk. Affiliations should contain the following core information: department, institution, city, state, postal code, and country. For contact, email address of at least one corresponding author must be included. It is compulsory that all authors have viewed and approved the final version of the manuscript before submitting it via the system.


Authors should include an abstract which is a concise summary of a research paper that is fully self-contained and makes sense by itself. It should be informative for the readers and include the research purpose and the results achieved that are significant. Please note that the abstract should be the range of 200-250 words, indented and single spaced. Ideally, an abstract should be the last thing that the author writes after completing his manuscript. Authors should also include 5-8 keywords after the abstract and avoid using the words that have already been used in the title of the manuscript.

Section Headings

Authors must ensure that all section headings, subheadings and sub-subheadings are differentiated by font size. Please capitalize the initial letter of the first word for each level of headings.


Main headings: Bold, font size 15
Headings: Bold, font size 12
Subheadings: Bold, font size 12
Sub-subheadings: Regular, font size 11


The introduction of the paper should start with an explanation of why a particular research is being conducted and end with a statement/conclusion of the selected research approach. Authors must ensure that a non-technical reader is able to understand the introduction, including the technical goals and objectives, any technical issues faced and its application in the real world. It would be beneficial for the readers if the authors provided a clear, one sentence purpose statement of the research. It would be advisable to keep the length of the introduction about 1/2 page (1-2 paragraphs).

Materials and methods

In this section, authors are required to provide a detailed account of the procedure that was followed while conducting the research described in the report. This will help the readers to obtain a clear understanding of the research and also allow them to replicate the study in the future. Authors should ensure that every method used is described and include citations for the procedures that have been described previously. Avoid any kind of discussion in this section regarding the methods or results of any kind.


Ethics information, including IACUC permit numbers and/or IRB name, if applicable. This information should be included in a subheading labeled "Ethics statement" in the "Methods" section of your manuscript file, in as much detail as possible.


This section can be divided into subheadings. This section focuses on the results of the experiments performed.


In this section, authors should state their interpretations and explain the implications of their results and make suggestions for future research. The discussion should be kept as short as possible while clearly and fully stating, supporting, explaining, and defending the author’s answers and discussing other important and directly relevant issues. Authors should avoid discussing side issues as it may obscure the message.


Authors should note that the conclusion is extremely important as it provides a closure for their paper. An effective conclusion would leave the readers feeling satisfied that the concepts have been fully explained. The conclusion should start with a clear statement of principal findings that also has to be concise. It would help to set the paper in the context of previous work as this will show the readers how significant or worthy your research is. Please restrain from rewriting the abstract and recommendations for further research can be included in this section.


This is the section where the authors can credit others for their guidance or help in writing the manuscript. Funding sources or sponsorship information may be included here too.

Conflict of interest
Declaration of conflict of interest. If no conflict of interest, please state that: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


Any technical details that are necessary to include, but that interrupts the flow of the article, can be attached in the appendix section. Any appendices should be included at the end of the paper, after the reference list. For supplementary materials, authors are advised to submit them as individual supplementary files.


The text of the manuscript should be in Microsoft Word or Latex format. The length of the manuscript cannot be more than 50,000 characters (inclusive of spaces) or approximately 7000 words.

Figures and tables

All figures and tables should be cited in the main text as Figure 1Table 1, etc. Place figures as close as possible to the text they refer to and aligned center. Photos, graphs, charts or diagram should be labeled Figure (do not abbreviate), and assigned a number consecutively (Figure 1). The title should appear underneath the figure, aligned center, no additional blank line.

In cases where the title needs to be extended over to the second line, the title should be aligned left. 

In cases where the tables need to be extended over to the second page, the continuation of the table should be preceded by a caption, e.g., “Table 1. (Continued)”. Table footnotes should be placed below the table.


For example:

                                                                 Table 1. Table label.



                                                             Figure 1. Figure lable.


Including symbols and equations in the text, the variable name and style must be consistent with those in the equations. Equations should be centered and numbered at the right margin of the same line; the equation number is enclosed with open and close parenthesis (). 
For example:

Supplementary information

This section is optional and contains all materials and figures that have been excluded from the entire manuscript. This information is relevant to the manuscript but remains non-essential to readers’ understanding of the manuscript’s main content. All supplementary information should be submitted as a separate file in Step 4 during submission. Please ensure the names of such files contain "suppl. info".

In-text citations

Reference citations in the text should be numbered consecutively in superscript square brackets. Some examples:

  • Negotiation research spans many disciplines[3,4].
  • This result was later contradicted by Becker and Seligman[5].
  • This effect has been widely studied[1-5,7].

Personal communications and unpublished works can only be used in the main text of the submission and are not to be placed in the Reference section. Authors are advised to limit such usage to the minimum. They should also be easily identifiable by stating the authors and year of such unpublished works or personal communications and the word ‘Unpublished’ in parenthesis, E.g. (Smith J, 2000, Unpublished).


Journal Article

The format is as follows: numerical order, point, family name, blank, initial letter(s) of names (use et alif more than three authors), point, Title of the cited article, point, Journal Title in italics, published year, semicolon, volume(issue number), colon, page numbers. doi (if available)

For example:

1. Li Z, Oskarsson M, Heyden A. Detailed 3D human body reconstruction from multi-view images combining voxel super-resolution and learned implicit representation. Applied Intelligence 2022; 52(6): 6739–6759. doi: 10.1007/s10489-021-02783-8

Article in a language other than English

Author 1 FM, Author 2 FM, Author 3 FM, et al. English title of the article (language). Journal Name Year; Volume(Issue) (if available): Firstpage–Lastpage. doi (if available)

For example:

1. Massone L, Borghi S, Palmarpuric localization of dermatitis herpetiformis (French). Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie 1987; 114(12): 1545–1547.


Book without editors

Author 1 FM, Author 2 FM. Chapter (optional). In: Title of the Book, Edition (if available). Publisher; Year. pp. Page range (optional).

For example:

1.  Desiraju GR, Steiner T. The Weak Hydrogen Bond in Structural Chemistry and Biology, 2nd ed. Oxford University Press; 1999. pp. 10–25.

Book with editors

Author 1 FM, Author 2 FM. Title of the contribution. In: Editor 1 FM, Editor 2 FM (editors). Title of the Book, Edition (if available). Publisher; Year. Volume (optional). pp. Page range (optional).

For example:

1. Rojko JL, Hardy WD Jr. Feline leukemia virus and other retroviruses. In: Sherding RG (editor). The Cat: Diseases and Clinical Management, 3rd ed. Churchill Livingstone; 1989. pp. 229–332.


Patent Owner 1, Patent Owner 2, Patent Owner 3. Title of Patent. Patent Number, Date (Day Month Year, the Application granted date).
For example:

1. Blanco EE, Meade JC, Richards WD. Surgical Stapling System. U.S. Patent 4,969,591. 13 November 1990.

Conference publication

Full citations of published abstracts (proceedings):

Author 1 FM, Author 2 FM, Author 3 FM, et al. Title of presentation. In: Proceedings of the Name of the Conference; Date of Conference (Day Month Year) (if available); Location of Conference (City, Country) (if available). Abstract Number (optional), Pagination (optional).

For example:

1. Chum O, Philbin J, Zisserman A. Near duplicate image detection: Min‐Hash and tf‐idf weighting. In: Proceedings of the 19th British Machine Vision Conference (BMVC 2008); 1–4 September 2008; Leeds, UK. pp. 812–815.
If the proceedings are published as a book with a separate title (i.e., not “Proceedings of the Name of the Conference (full name)” as the title), the Book Title is in italic:
Author 1 FM, Author 2 FM, Author 3 FM. Title of presentation. In: Editor 1 FM, Editor 2 FM (editors) (if available). Title of Collected Work, Proceedings of the Name of the Conference; Date of Conference (Day Month Year) (if available); Location of Conference (City, Country) (if available). Publisher; Year. Abstract Number (optional), Pagination (optional).
For example:
1. Beebe N. Digital forensic research: The good, the bad and the unaddressed. In: Advances in Digital Forensics V, Proceedings of the Fifth IFIP WG 11.9 International Conference on Digital Forensics; 26–28 January 2009; Orlando, FL, USA. Springer; 2009. Volume V. pp. 17–36.
Oral presentations without published material:

Author 1 FM, Author 2 FM, Author 3 FM. Title of presentation (if any). Presented at the Name of Conference; Date of Conference (Day Month Year) (if available); Location of Conference (City, Country) (if available); Paper number (if available).
For example:
1. Zhang Z, Chen H, Zhong J, et al. ZnO nanotip‐based QCM biosensors. Presented at the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and Exposition; 4–7 June 2006; Miami, FL, USA.

Author FM. Title of Thesis [Level of thesis]. Degree‐Granting University; Year.
For example:
1. Mäckel H. Capturing the Spectra of Silicon Solar Cells [PhD thesis]. The Australian National University; 2004.


Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  1. The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  2. The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, RTF, or WordPerfect document file format.
  3. Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  4. The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  5. The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal.
  6. If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed.

Copyright Notice

The Author(s) warrant that permission to publish the article has not been previously assigned elsewhere.

Author(s) shall retain the copyright of their work and grant the Journal/Publisher right for the first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under: 

a) OA - Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0). This license allows for the copying, distribution and transmission of the work, provided the correct attribution of the original creator is stated. Adaptation and remixing are also permitted.

b) OCA - Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). This license allows for the copying, distribution and transmission of the work, provided the correct attribution of the original creator is stated. Distribution of adaptation and remixing article are NOT permitted.

Both licenses restricted the use of the content for commercial purpose. This broad license intends to facilitate free access to, as well as the unrestricted reuse of, original works of all types for non-commercial purposes.


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