Vol 2, No 2 (Published)

Table of Contents

Open Access
Article
Article ID: 858
PDF
by Emma Hooper, Sanjay Peters, Patrick Pintus
J. Infras. Policy. Dev. 2018 , 2(2);    1568 Views
Abstract By reviewing US state-level panel data on infrastructure spending and on per capita income inequality from 1950 to 2010, this paper sets out to test whether an empirical link exists between infrastructure and inequality. Panel regressions with fixed effects show that an increase in the growth rate of spending on highways and higher education in a given decade correlates negatively with Gini indices at the end of the decade, thus suggesting a causal effect from growth in infrastructure spending to a reduction in inequality through better access to education and opportunities for employment. More significantly, this relationship is more pronounced with inequality at the bottom 40 percent of the income distribution. In addition, infrastructure expenditures on highways are shown to be more effective at reducing inequality. By carrying out a counterfactual experiment, the results show that those US states with a significantly higher bottom Gini coefficient in 2010 had underinvested in infrastructure during the previous decade. From a policy-making perspective, new innovations in finance for infrastructure investments are developed, for the US, other industrially advanced countries and also for developing economies.
show more
Open Access
Article
Article ID: 673
PDF
by Sulistiyo Kadam Ardiyono, Nurul Pratiwi Andi Parenrengi, Faturachman Faturachman
J. Infras. Policy. Dev. 2018 , 2(2);    1853 Views
Abstract To increase inter-region connectivity, the Indonesian government initiated infrastructure projects such as toll roads, airport, highways, as well as agriculture ones throughout the countries. One of the big projects in road infrastructure was the Cikampek–Palimanan (Cipali) toll road in West Java with a budget of more than USD1 billion which started to operate in July 2015. This paper is aimed to evaluate the impact of the toll road on accessibilities, trades, and investments in the region it traverses. To carry out the analysis, we used qualitative approach, difference-in-difference approach, and ANOVA, utilizing three kinds of data. The first data is collected from a survey of 331 small-medium enterprises (SMEs) in the logistics and the hotel and restaurant industries. The second one is bank loan data sourced from Bank Indonesia, while the third one is investment data from Investment Coordinating Board of Indonesia (BKPM). After two years of its operation, Cipali toll road has increased accessibility, mobility, trade, and investment in the region it traverses. The travel time was reduced by 39%, while the cargo volume of the local businesses increased by 30% to 40%. These led to an improvement of wholesale trade volume in almost all regencies. However, SMEs in the hotel and restaurant industry along the traditional northern coastal highway in Subang, Indramayu, and Brebes experienced a decline due to the traffic shifting. Meanwhile, investments from national companies especially those of labor-intensive manufacturing industries flowed significantly especially to Subang and Majalengka, which reflected a “sorting effect”. However, investments from local and foreign businesses did not increase significantly yet after 2.5 years of toll operation. To reap the benefit from the presence of Cipali toll road, the local governments should improve the ease of doing business to attract investments that boost employment in return. In addition, given a better accessibility from Greater Jakarta and a large number of potential visitors passing through the toll road, local businesses in the trade sector would benefit if they could promote the local attractions such as in tourism activities supported by the local government. The latter strategy should also be implemented by the local governments and local businesses in the northern coastal traditional route to minimize the negative impact of the toll road due to the traffic shifting. This strategy should be strengthened through increasing connectivity from the toll exits to local business areas and through increasing the ease of doing business.
show more
Open Access
Article
Article ID: 857
PDF
by José Pedro Pontes, Joana Pais
J. Infras. Policy. Dev. 2018 , 2(2);    1878 Views
Abstract In this paper, we establish a two-way causality between the phenomenon of infrastructure which is underused (the so-called “white elephant case”) and the aggregate productivity level (TFP) of the economy. On the one hand, the fact that a transport infrastructure is not used as much as it could be is itself a cause of low TFP because it represents low productivity for an important item of social capital. On the other hand, low aggregate productivity makes firms’ strategies founded on large scale of production and exports riskier, given the possibility that the political decision to build the required transport infrastructure may never be taken.
show more
Open Access
Article
Article ID: 691
PDF
by Xubei Luo, Xuejiao Xu
J. Infras. Policy. Dev. 2018 , 2(2);    1448 Views
Abstract Infrastructure development is critical to delivering growth, reducing poverty and addressing broader development goals, as argued in the World Bank Report Transformation through Infrastructure (2012). This paper surveys the literature of the linkages between infrastructure investment and economic growth, discusses the role of infrastructure in the participation of global value chains and in supporting economic upgrades, highlights the challenges faced the least developed countries and provides policy recommendations. It suggests that addressing the bottlenecks in infrastructure is a necessary condition to provide a window of opportunity for an economy to develop following its comparative advantage. With the right conditions, good infrastructure can support an economy, particularly a less developed economy, to reap the benefit through the participation in the global value chains to upgrade the economic structure.
show more
Open Access
Article
Article ID: 156
PDF
by Vinod Vasudevan, Nitish Goenka, Michael Garvin
J. Infras. Policy. Dev. 2018 , 2(2);    1016 Views
Abstract This study examines conditions that impact PPP delivery success or failure in the roadways sector in India using Qualitative Comparative Analysis. QCA is well-suited for problems where multiple factors combine to create pathways leading to an outcome. Past investigations have compared PPP and non-PPP project delivery performance, but this study examines performance within PPPs by uncovering a set of conditions that combine to influence the success or failure road PPP project delivery in India. Based on data from 21 cases, pathways explaining project delivery success or failure were identified. Specifically, PPPs with high concessionaire equity investment and low regional industrial activity led to project delivery success. Projects with lower concessionaire equity investment and low reliance on toll revenue and with either: (a) high project technical complexity or (b) high regional industrial activity, led to project delivery failure. The pathways identified did not have coverage values that they were extremely strong. Coverage strength was hindered by lack of access to information on additional conditions that could be configurationally important. Further, certain characteristics of the Indian market limit generalization. Identification of combinations of conditions leading to PPP project delivery success or failure improves knowledge of the impacts of structure and characteristics of these complex arrangements. This study is one of the first to use fuzzy QCA to understand project delivery success/failure in road PPP projects. Moreover, this study takes into account factors specific to a sector and delivery mode to explain project delivery performance.
show more
Open Access
Article
Article ID: 839
PDF
by Alfredo Marvao Pereira, Rui Manuel Pereira
J. Infras. Policy. Dev. 2018 , 2(2);    1979 Views
Abstract Over the past decade, Ontario has seen a renewal in efforts to stimulate economic growth by investing in infrastructures. In this paper, we analyze the impact of public infrastructure investment on economic performance in this province. We use a multivariate dynamic time series methodological approach, based on the use of vector autoregressive models to estimate the elasticities and marginal products of six different types of public infrastructure assets on private investment, employment and output. We find that all types of public investment crowd in private investment while investment in highways, roads, and bridges crowds out employment. We also find that all types of public investment, with the exception of highways, roads and bridges, have a positive effect on output. The relatively large range of results estimated for the impact of each of the different public infrastructure types suggests that a targeted approach to the design of infrastructure investment policy is required. Infrastructure investment in transit systems and health facilities display the highest returns for output and the largest effects on employment and labor productivity. In terms of the nature of the empirical results presented here it would be important to highlight the fact that investments in health infrastructures as well as investments in education infrastructures are of great relevance. This is a pattern consistent with the mounting international evidence on the importance of human capital for long term economic performance.
show more
Open Access
Article
Article ID: 828
PDF
by Izabela Karpowicz, Carlos Góes, Mercedes Garcia-Escribano
J. Infras. Policy. Dev. 2018 , 2(2);    1996 Views
Abstract Infrastructure bottlenecks have been identified as a key obstacle to growth affecting productivity and market efficiency, and hindering domestic integration and export performance. This paper assesses the state of Brazil’s infrastructure, in light of past investment trends and various quality and quantity indicators. Brazil’s infrastructure stock and its quality rank low in relation to that of comparator countries, chosen amongst main export competitors. We provide evidence that infrastructure affects domestic integration by analyzing price convergence of tradable goods across major cities. The government’s concession program will narrow part of the infrastructure gap, however, governance reforms will be crucial to improving investment efficiency.
show more
Open Access
Article
Article ID: 1047
PDF
by Atsuko Okuda, Siope Vakataki ‘Ofa
J. Infras. Policy. Dev. 2018 , 2(2);    3461 Views
Abstract This exploratory study aims to identify the main characteristics and relationships between artificial intelligence (AI) and broadband development in Asia and the Pacific. Broadband networks are the foundation and prerequisite for the development of AI. But what types of broadband networks would be conducive are not adequately discussed so far. Furthermore, in addition to broadband networks, other factors, such as income level, broadband quality, and investment, are expected to influence the uptake of AI in the region. The findings are synthesized into a set of policy recommendations at the end of the article, which highlights the need for regional cooperation through an initiative, such as the Asia-Pacific Information Superhighway (AP-IS). 
show more