Immunomodulatory Phytocompounds from Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Ashwagandha) Against COVID-19

Partha Sarathi Singha, Ramkrishna Ghosh, Debosree Ghosh

Article ID: 2703
Vol 8, Issue 1, 2024

VIEWS - 208 (Abstract) 78 (PDF)

Abstract


Withania somnifera is a famous medicinal plant. It is popularly known as Aswagandha. This plant has been in use in Ayurveda and Unani medicine for ages. The medicinal plant has immense medicinal properties. The plant is rich in potent medicinal phytocompounds. These phytocompounds are known to have potent antioxidant, antiviral, antibacterial and immunomodulatory efficacies. Our immune system is the key player in n fighting back any kind of pathogeni attack on us. Withania somnifera extract and certain isolated phytocompounds from the plant are known to boost our immune system. Studies show that the mechanisms of immunomodulatory actions of the bioactive phytocompounds from Withania somnifera are by affecting the various cellular signaling pathways. These primarily involve the signaling pathways associated with the receptors present on the vital immune cells like the dendritic cells, T-cells and B-cells. Thus, some of the compounds of Withania suppress or activate certain components of the innate and adaptive immune system. Unlike synthetic adjuvants, the natural plant derived phytocompounds and their derivatives, as those from the Withania sp. are free from such risk factors. A strong immune system is the best possession to fight back invasions by microbes like bacteria and viruses like the SARS-CoV-2. Detailed and compact knowledge of the compounds from Withania sp. and their mechanism of modulating and impacting our immune system may make the ways for development of new supportive therapies against almost all different types of diseases including COVID 19.


Keywords


Aswagandha; Withania somnifera; immunomodulatory; side effects; immune system

Full Text:

PDF


References


1. Immune system explained. Available online: https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/immune-system (accessed on 7 August 2023).

2. Tharakan A, Shukla H, Benny IR, et al. Immunomodulatory Effect of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) Extract—A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled Trial with an Open Label Extension on Healthy Participants. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021, 10(16): 3644. doi: 10.3390/jcm10163644

3. Available online: https://www.pennmedicine.org/updates/blogs/health-and-wellness/2020/may/what-it-means-to-be-immunocompromised (accessed on 7 August 2023).

4. Primary Immunodeficiency. Available online: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/primary-immunodeficiency/symptoms-causes/syc-20376905 (accessed on 7 August 2023).

5. Bartleson JM, Radenkovic D, Covarrubias AJ, et al. SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19 and the aging immune system. Nature Aging. 2021, 1(9): 769–782. doi: 10.1038/s43587-021-00114-7

6. Ghosh D, Singha PS, Parida P. Postmenopausal Health of Indian Women: A Review. Current Women s Health Reviews. 2018, 15(1): 64–69. doi: 10.2174/1573404813666171201150725.

7. Ghosh S, Ghosh D, Singha PS. Impact of altered Energy metabolism and Immune regulation in reproductive health of Aged Men. Chemical Biology Letters. 2021, 8(4): 257–264.

8. Wu C, Chen X, Cai Y, et al. Risk Factors Associated with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Death in Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA Internal Medicine. 2020, 180(7): 934. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.0994

9. Arshad MS, Khan U, Sadiq A, et al. Coronavirus disease (COVID‐19) and immunity booster green foods: A mini review. Food Science & Nutrition. 2020, 8(8): 3971–3976. doi: 10.1002/fsn3.1719

10. Abascal K, Yarnell E. Herbal Treatments for Pandemic Influenza: Learning from the Eclectics’ Experience. Alternative and Complementary Therapies. 2006, 12(5): 214–221. doi: 10.1089/act.2006.12.214

11. Calcuttawala F. Nutrition as a key to boost immunity against COVID-19. Clinical Nutrition ESPEN. 2022, 49: 17–23. doi: 10.1016/j.clnesp.2022.04.007

12. Arora A, Solanki P, Kumar D. Evaluation of In Vitro Immunomodulatory Activity of Withania somnifera Roots on Human Neutrophils. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 2021, 193(6): 1631–1638. doi: 10.1007/s12010-021-03518-8

13. Agarwal R, Diwanay S, Patki P, et al. Studies on immunomodulatory activity of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) extracts in experimental immune inflammation. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1999, 67(1): 27–35. doi: 10.1016/s0378-8741(99)00065-3

14. Tewari D, Chander V, Dhyani A, et al. Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal: Phytochemistry, structure-activity relationship, and anticancer potential. Phytomedicine. 2022, 98: 153949. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2022.

15. Alanazi HH, Elfaki E. The immunomodulatory role of Withania somnifera (L.) dunal in inflammatory diseases. Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2023, 14. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2023.1084757

16. Who Monograms on Selected Medicinal plants. Available online: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/42052 (accessed on 7 September 2023).

17. Singh N, Bhalla M, de Jager P, Gilca M. An overview on ashwagandha: A Rasayana (rejuvenator) of Ayurveda. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. 2011, 8(5 Suppl): 208–213.

18. Available online: https://www.bionity.com/en/encyclopedia/Rasayana.html (accessed on 7 September 2023).

19. Williamson EM. Major Herbs of Ayurveda. Churchill Livingstone; 2002. pp. 322–323.

20. Nadkarni KM. Indian Materia Medica. Popular Prakshan Limited; 1976. p. 1291.

21. Available online: https://www.lybrate.com/topic/benefits-of-indian-ginseng-and-its-side-effects (accessed on 7 September 2023).

22. Saleem S, Muhammad G, Hussain MA, et al. Withania somnifera L.: Insights into the phytochemical profile, therapeutic potential, clinical trials, and future prospective. Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences. 2020, 23(12): 1501–1526.

23. Suresh Gupta M, Shivaprasad HN, Kharya MD, et al. Immunomodulatory Activity of the Ayurvedic Formulation “Ashwagandha Churna.” Pharmaceutical Biology. 2006, 44(4): 263–265. doi: 10.1080/13880200600713949

24. Jantan I, Ahmad W, Bukhari SNA. Plant-derived immunomodulators: An insight on their preclinical evaluation and clinical trials. Frontiers in Plant Science. 2015, 6. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2015.00655

25. Ghosal S, Lal J, Srivastava R, et al. Immunomodulatory and CNS effects of sitoindosides IX and X, two new glycowithanolides from Withania somnifera. Phytotherapy Research. 1989, 3(5): 201–206. doi: 10.1002/ptr.2650030510

26. Kuttan LDG. Amelioration of cyclophosphamide induced toxicity using Withania somnifera. Amala Res. Bull. 1996, 16: 109–112.

27. Saggam A, Limgaokar K, Borse S, et al. Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal: Opportunity for Clinical Repurposing in COVID-19 Management. Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2021, 12. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2021.623795

28. Sharma PK, Kumar L, Goswami Y, et al. The aqueous root extract of Withania somnifera ameliorates LPS-induced inflammatory changes in the in vitro cell-based and mice models of inflammation. Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2023, 14. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2023.1139654

29. Mirjalili M, Moyano E, Bonfill M, et al. Steroidal Lactones from Withania somnifera, an Ancient Plant for Novel Medicine. Molecules. 2009, 14(7): 2373–2393. doi: 10.3390/molecules14072373

30. Girish KS, Machiah KD, Ushanandini S, et al. Antimicrobial properties of a non‐toxic glycoprotein (WSG) from Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha). Journal of Basic Microbiology. 2006, 46(5): 365–374. doi: 10.1002/jobm.200510108

31. Sharifi-Rad J, Quispe C, Ayatollahi SA, et al. Chemical Composition, Biological Activity, and Health-Promoting Effects of Withania somnifera for Pharma-Food Industry Applications. Journal of Food Quality. 2021, 2021: 1–14. doi: 10.1155/2021/8985179

32. Available online: https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Sitoindoside-IX (accessed on 16 August 2023).

33. Bhattacharya A, Ramanathan M, Ghosal S, Bhattacharya SK. Effect of Withania somnifera glycowithanolides on iron-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Phytotherapy Research. 2000, 14(7): 568–570. doi: 10.1002/1099-1573(200011)14: 7<568: : aid-ptr663>3.0.co, 2-q

34. National Center for Biotechnology Information. “PubChem Compound Summary for CID 265237, Withaferin A” PubChem. Available online: https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Withaferin-A (accessed on 16 August 2023).

35. National Center for Biotechnology Information. “PubChem Bioassay Record for AID 1771376, Source: ChEMBL” PubChem. Available online: https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioassay/1771376 (accessed on 16 August 2023).

36. National Center for Biotechnology Information. “PubChem Compound Summary for CID 92987, Pelletierine” PubChem. Available online: https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Pelletierine (accessed on 16 August 2023).

37. Available online: http://www.chemspider.com/Chemical-Structure.21172044.html (accessed on 16 August 2023).

38. Mishra LC, Singh BB, Dagenais S. Scientific basis for the therapeutic use of Withania somnifera. (Ashwagandha): A review. Alternative Medicine Reviews. 2000, 5: 334–346.

39. Das K. Herbal plants as immunity modulators against COVID-19: A primary preventive measure during home quarantine. Journal of Herbal Medicine. 2022, 32: 100501. doi: 10.1016/j.hermed.2021.100501

40. Available online: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-0-387-39571-5_522 (accessed on 23 August 2023).

41. Ahuja A, Kaur D, Sharada M, et al. Glycowithanolides accumulation in in Vitro Shoot Cultures of Indian Ginseng (Withania somnifera Dunal). Natural Product Communications. 2009, 4(4). doi: 10.1177/1934578x0900400407

42. Available online: https://www.chemarc.com/products/chemicals/sitoindoside-x/14137756178209462/overview (accessed on 23 August 2023).

43. John J. Therapeutic Potential of Withania Somnifera: A Report on Phyto-Pharmacological Properties. International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research. 2014, 5(6): 2131–2148.

44. Ghosh S, Singha PS, Ghosh D. Neuroprotective compounds from three common medicinal plants of West Bengal, India: a mini review. Explor. Neurosci. 2023, 2: 307–17. doi: 10.37349/en.2023.00030

45. Kirson I, Glotter E. 14 α–hydroxy steroids from Withania somnifera (L) Dunal. Journal of Chemical Research-S. 1980, 10: 338–339.

46. Lavie D, Kirson I, Glotter E. Constituents of Withania Somnifera Dun. Part X The Structure of Withanolide D. Israel Journal of Chemistry. 1968, 6(5): 671–678. doi: 10.1002/ijch.196800085

47. Glotter E, Abraham A, Günzberg G, et al. Naturally occurring steroidal lactones with a 17α-oriented side chain. Structure of withanolide E and related compounds. J Chem Soc, Perkin Trans 1. 1977, (4): 341–346. doi: 10.1039/p19770000341

48. Glotter E, Kirson I, Abraham A, et al. Constituents of Withania somnifera Dun—XIII. Tetrahedron. 1973, 29(10): 1353–1364. doi: 10.1016/s0040-4020(01)83156-2

49. Chatterjee S, Srivastava S, Khalid A, et al. Comprehensive metabolic fingerprinting of Withania somnifera leaf and root extracts. Phytochemistry. 2010, 71(10): 1085–1094. doi: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2010.04.001

50. Tomar V, Beuerle T, Sircar D. A validated HPTLC method for the simultaneous quantifications of three phenolic acids and three withanolides from Withania somnifera plants and its herbal products. Journal of Chromatography B. 2019, 1124: 154–160. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2019.06.009

51. Schwarting AE, Bobbit JM, Rother A, et al. The alkaloids of Withania somnifera. Llyoida. 1963, 26: 258–273.

52. Bessalle R, Lavie D. Withanolide C, A chlorinated withanolide from Withania somnifera. Phytochemistry. 1992, 31(10): 3648–3651. doi: 10.1016/0031-9422(92)83749-o

53. Trivedi PC, Choudhrey N. Isolation and characterization of bioactive compound sitosterol from Withania somnifera L. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2011, 4: 4252–4253.

54. Mathur R, Gupta SK, Singh N, et al. Evaluation of the effect of Withania somnifera root extracts on cell cycle and angiogenesis. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2006, 105(3): 336–341. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2005.11.020

55. Singh H, Yadav B, Rai AK, et al. Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) and Shunthi (Zingiber officinale) in mild and moderate COVID-19: An open-label randomized controlled exploratory trial. Complement Ther Med. 2023, 76: 102966. doi: 10.1016/j.ctim.2023.102966

56. Subbaraju GV, Vanisree M, Rao CV, et al. Ashwagandhanolide, a Bioactive Dimeric Thiowithanolide Isolated from the Roots of Withania somnifera. Journal of Natural Products. 2006, 69(12): 1790–1792. doi: 10.1021/np060147p

57. Gheshlaghi SZ, Nakhaei E, Ebrahimi A, et al. Analysis of medicinal and therapeutic potential of Withania somnifera derivatives against COVID-19. Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics. 2023, 41(14): 6883–6893. doi: 10.1080/07391102.2022.2112977

58. Jayaprakasam B, Strasburg GA, Nair MG. Potent lipid peroxidation inhibitors from Withania somnifera fruits. Tetrahedron. 2004, 60(13): 3109–3121. doi: 10.1016/j.tet.2004.01.016

59. Ali M, Shuaib M, Ansari SH. Withanolides from the stem bark of Withania somnifera. Phytochemistry. 1997, 44(6): 1163–1168. doi: 10.1016/s0031-9422(96)00656-5

60. White PT, Subramanian C, Motiwala HF, et al. Natural Withanolides in the Treatment of Chronic Diseases. Anti-inflammatory Nutraceuticals and Chronic Diseases. Published online 2016: 329–373. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-41334-1_14

61. Iuvone T, Esposito G, Capasso F, et al. Induction of nitric oxide synthase expression by Withania somnifera in macrophages. Life Sciences. 2003, 72(14): 1617–1625. doi: 10.1016/s0024-3205(02)02472-4

62. Bonilla DA, Moreno Y, Gho C, et al. Effects of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) on Physical Performance: Systematic Review and Bayesian Meta-Analysis. Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology. 2021, 6(1): 20. doi: 10.3390/jfmk6010020

63. Davis L, Kuttan G. Suppressive effect of cyclophosphamide-induced toxicity by Withania somnifera extract in mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1998, 62(3): 209–214. doi: 10.1016/s0378-8741(98)00039-7

64. Rizvi ZA, Babele P, Madan U, et al. Pharmacological potential of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal and Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers on the experimental models of COVID-19, T cell differentiation, and neutrophil functions. Frontiers in Immunology. 2023, 14. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2023.1138215

65. Kalpana K, Yap S, Tsuji M, et al. Molecular Mechanism behind the Safe Immunostimulatory Effect of Withania somnifera. Biomolecules. 2023, 13(5): 828. doi: 10.3390/biom13050828

66. Tiwari R, Chakrabort S, Saminathan M, et al. Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera): Role in Safeguarding Health, Immunomodulatory Effects, Combating Infections and Therapeutic Applications: A Review. Journal of Biological Sciences. 2014, 14(2): 77–94. doi: 10.3923/jbs.2014.77.94

67. Khanal P, Chikhale R, Dey YN, et al. Withanolides from Withania somnifera as an immunity booster and their therapeutic options against COVID-19. Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics. 2021, 40(12): 5295–5308. doi: 10.1080/07391102.2020.1869588

68. National Center for Biotechnology Information. “PubChem Compound Summary for CID 161671, Withanolide D” PubChem. Available online: https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Withanolide-D (accessed on 24 August 2023).

69. National Center for Biotechnology Information. “PubChem Compound Summary for CID 21679023, Withanolide G” PubChem. Available online: https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Withanolide-G (accessed on 24 August 2023).

70. Atta-ur-Rahman, Abbas S, Dur-e-Shahwar, et al. New withanolides from Withania sp. Journal of Natural Products. 1993, 56: 1000–1006.

71. National Center for Biotechnology Information. “PubChem Compound Summary for CID 25090669, Withanolide M” PubChem. Available online: https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Withanolide-M (accessed on 24 August 2023).

72. Tripathi MK, Singh P, Sharma S, et al. Identification of bioactive molecule from Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) as SARS-CoV-2 main protease inhibitor. Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics. 2021, 39(15): 5668–5681. doi: 10.1080/07391102.2020.1790425

73. National Center for Biotechnology Information. “PubChem Compound Summary for CID 101281365, Withanolide Q” PubChem. Available online: https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Withanolide-Q (accessed on 24 August 2023).

74. Balkrishna A, Pokhrel S, Singh H, et al. Withanone from Withania somnifera Attenuates SARS-CoV-2 RBD and Host ACE2 Interactions to Rescue Spike Protein Induced Pathologies in Humanized Zebrafish Model. Drug Design, Development and Therapy. 2021, 15: 1111–1133. doi: 10.2147/dddt.s292805

75. Dhama P, Ding X, Sharma A. Exploring phytochemicals of Withania somnifera from different vicinity for functional foods. Journal of Future Foods. 2023, 3(3): 278–287. doi: 10.1016/j.jfutfo.2023.02.010

76. Abdelwahed MT, Hegazy MA, Mohamed EH. Major biochemical constituents of Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) extract: A review of chemical analysis. Reviews in Analytical Chemistry. 2023, 42(1). doi: 10.1515/revac-2022-0055

77. Das S, Saraf A, Sharma D, Sohal JK. Qualitative screnning of bioactive secondary metabolites present in Withania somnifera and Rauwolfia serpentina root and stem extract with pharmacological importance. International Journal of Research and Analytical Reviews. 2019, 6: 69–74.

78. Alam N, Hossain M, Khalil MI, et al. High catechin concentrations detected in Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) by high performance liquid chromatography analysis. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2011, 11(1). doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-11-65

79. Iqbal Choudhary M, Dur-e-Shahwar, Parveen Z, et al. Antifungal steroidal lactones from Withania coagulance. Phytochemistry. 1995, 40(4): 1243–1246. doi: 10.1016/0031-9422(95)00429-b

80. Subramanian SS, Sethi PD. Withaferin–A from the roots of Withania coagulans. Current Science. 1969, 38: 267–268.

81. Atta-ur-Rahman, Shabbir M, Yousaf M, et al. Three withanolides from Withania coagulans. Phytochemistry. 1999, 52(7): 1361–1364. doi: 10.1016/s0031-9422(99)00416-1

82. Subramanian SS, Sethi PD, Glotter E, et al. 5,20α(R)-dihydroxy-6α,7α-epoxy-1-oxo-(5α) witha-2,24-dienolide, a new steroidal lactone from withania coagulans. Phytochemistry. 1971, 10(3): 685–688. doi: 10.1016/s0031-9422(00)94725-3

83. Atta-ur-Rahman, Choudhary MI, Qureshi S, et al. Two New Ergostane-Type Steroidal Lactones from Withania coagulans. Journal of Natural Products. 1998, 61(6): 812–814. doi: 10.1021/np970478p

84. Bhattacharya SK, Bhattacharya A, Sairam K, et al. Anxiolytic-antidepressant activity of Withania somnifera glycowithanolides: An experimental study. Phytomedicine. 2000, 7(6): 463–469. doi: 10.1016/s0944-7113(00)80030-6

85. Bhattacharya SK, Goel RK, Kaur R, et al. Anti‐stress activity of sitoindosides VII and VIII, new acylsterylglucosides from Withania somnifera. Phytotherapy Research. 1987, 1(1): 32–37. doi: 10.1002/ptr.2650010108

86. Bhatnagar M, Sharma D, Salvi M. Neuroprotective effects of Withania somnifera dunal.: A possible mechanism. Neurochem Res. 2009, 34(11): 1975–1983. doi: 10.1007/s11064-009-9987-7

87. Yin H, Cho DH, Park SJ, et al. GABA-Mimetic Actions of Withania somnifera on Substantia Gelatinosa Neurons of the Trigeminal Subnucleus Caudalis in Mice. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine. 2013, 41(05): 1043–1051. doi: 10.1142/s0192415x13500705

88. Dar NJ, MuzamilAhmad. Neurodegenerative diseases and Withania somnifera (L.): An update. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2020, 256: 112769. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2020.112769

89. Jain P, Varshney R. Antimicrobial activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha). Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research. 2011, 3(3): 260–263.

90. El-Boshy MES, Abdalla OM, Risha A, et al. Effect of Withania somnifera Extracts on Some Selective Biochemical, Hematological, and Immunological Parameters in Guinea Pigs Experimental Infected with E. coli. ISRN Veterinary Science. 2013, 2013: 1–6. doi: 10.1155/2013/153427

91. Owais M, Sharad KS, Shehbaz A, et al. Antibacterial efficacy of Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) an indigenous medicinal plant against experimental murine salmonellosis. Phytomedicine. 2005, 12(3): 229–235. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2003.07.012

92. Velu S, Baskaran C. Phytochemical analysis and in-vitro antimicrobial activity of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha). Journal of Natural Product and Plant Resources. 2012, 2(6): 711–716.

93. Sundaram S, Dwivedi P, Purwar S. In vitro Evaluation of Antibacterial Activities of Crude Extracts of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) to Bacterial Pathogens. Asian Journal of Biotechnology. 2011, 3(2): 194–199. doi: 10.3923/ajbkr.2011.194.199

94. Rawat V, Bisht P. Antibacterial activity of Withania somnifera against Gram-positive isolates from pus samples. AYU (An International Quarterly Journal of Research in Ayurveda). 2014, 35(3): 330. doi: 10.4103/0974-8520.153757

95. Kumar N, Shala AY, Khurana SMP. Antiviral and immuno-boosting potential of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera L.). Medicinal Plants—International Journal of Phytomedicines and Related Industries. 2021, 13(2): 237–244. doi: 10.5958/0975-6892.2021.00026.5

96. Kumar V, Dhanjal JK, Bhargava P, et al. Withanone and Withaferin-A are predicted to interact with transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and block entry of SARS-CoV-2 into cells. Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics. 2020, 40(1): 1–13. doi: 10.1080/07391102.2020.1775704

97. Singh M, Jayant K, Singh D, et al. Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Ashwagandha) for the possible therapeutics and clinical management of SARS-CoV-2 infection: Plant-based drug discovery and targeted therapy. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology. 2022, 12. doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2022.933824

98. Khan S, Malik F, Suri KA, et al. Molecular insight into the immune up-regulatory properties of the leaf extract of Ashwagandha and identification of Th1 immunostimulatory chemical entity. Vaccine. 2009, 27(43): 6080–6087. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.07.011

99. Bani S, Gautam M, Sheikh FA, et al. Selective Th1 up-regulating activity of Withania somnifera aqueous extract in an experimental system using flow cytometry. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2006, 107(1): 107–115. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2006.02.016

100. Ziauddin M, Phansalkar N, Patki P, et al. Studies on the immunomodulatory effects of Ashwagandha. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1996, 50(2): 69–76. doi: 10.1016/0378-8741(95)01318-0

101. Kuttan G. Use of Withania somnifera Dunal as an adjuvant during radiation therapy. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 1996, 34: 854–856.

102. Davis L, Kuttan G. Effect of Withania somnifera on CTL activity. Journal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research. 2002, 21: 115–118.

103. Jantan I, Ahmad W, Bukhari SNA. Plant-derived immunomodulators: an insight on their preclinical evaluation and clinical trials. Frontiers in Plant Science. 2015, 6. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2015.00655

104. Patra S, Maity P, Chakraborty I, et al. Structural studies of immunomodulatory (1 → 3)-, (1 → 4)-α glucan from an edible mushroom Polyporus grammocephalus. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2021, 168: 649–655. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.11.121

105. Thawani V, Varadpande U, Sontakke S, et al. Immunomodulatory effect of <, i>, Tinospora cordifolia<, /i>, extract in human immuno-deficiency virus positive patients. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2008, 40(3): 107. doi: 10.4103/0253-7613.42302




DOI: https://doi.org/10.24294/ti.v8.i1.2703

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2024 Partha Sarathi Singha, Ramkrishna Ghosh, Debosree Ghosh

License URL: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

This site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.