A study on the interaction between civil business groups and the state from the perspective of public sphere theory—A comparison between the Shanghai branch of the China association and the Philippine Chinese charitable association Inc.

Wei Yao, Tingxuan Liu, Yuhong Li

Article ID: 3425
Vol 8, Issue 4, 2024

VIEWS - 636 (Abstract) 34 (PDF)

Abstract


This article attempts to use public sphere theory as a starting point to compare the behavior of the British government in protecting the interests of British business in China in the 19th century with the Chinese government’s neglect of the interests of Chinese business in the Philippines. Mill’s method of finding identities will be used. This article uses the Shanghai Branch of the China Association and the Philippine Chinese Charitable Association Inc. as representatives of civil business groups in the UK and China. For the UK, due to the public sphere of competition with the central government within the UK, civil business groups must consult with relevant civil business groups when implementing any economic foreign policy. This process promotes consensus between the British government and society to promotes the British government’s determination to maintain British business in China. However, for China, due to the absence of a public sphere where the central government interacts with society, even though Chinese civil business groups have huge interests overseas, the state and society have always been unable to form a positive interaction. At the same time, this situation also results in Chinese business in the Philippines having to rely on their abilities to maintain their local interests.


Keywords


business in China; Shanghai branch of the China association; Philippine Chinese charitable association Inc.; public sphere; civil business groups

Full Text:

PDF


References


Barker, T. B. (1901). Liverpool Chamber of Commerce to the China Association. The National Archives.

Bolitho, H. (1936). James Lyle Mackay: First Earl of Inchcape. Wyman and Sons, Ltd.

Bourdieu, P. (2023a). On the State. Lectures at the Collège de France 1989-1992 (French). Joint Publishing Company.

Bourdieu, P. (2023b). Anthropologie économique. Cours au Collège de France 1992-1993. Shanghai People’s Publishing House.

Calvert, R. K. (1901). Leeds Chamber of Commerce to the China Association. The National Archives.

Chen, D. X. (2018). Liu Kunyi’s Biography. Hunan Yuelu Publishing House Co., Ltd.

Chen, X. F. (1995). Chinese Customs Secret Files-Compilation of Letters and Telegrams from Robert Hart and James Duncan Campbell 1874–1907. Zhonghua Book Company.

Dudgeon, C. J. (1901). China Association (Shanghai) to H. B. M. Consul-General. The National Archives.

Dudgeon, C. J. (1902a). Memorandum. The National Archives.

Dudgeon, C. J. (1902b). To James Mackay. The National Archives.

Dudgeon, C. J. (1902c). To James Mackay. The National Archives.

Editorial Committee of the Series of Modern Chinese Economic History. (1994). Negotiation of the commerce treaty after the Boxer protocol. Zhonghua book company.

Feintuck, M. (2014). The Public Interest in Regulation. China Renmin University Press.

Gong, N., Xing, J. H., Long, D. G. (2020). An Economic Analysis of “the Cabecilla System” in the Chinese Business Network in the Philippines (1834–1942). Journal of Overseas Chinese History Studies, 1, 30-38.

Gundry, R. S. (1901). Memorandum. The National Archives.

Habermas, J. (1989). The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere. The MIT Press.

Habermas, J. (1999). Structural change in the public sphere (German). Academia Press.

Hong, B. R. (2019). Xiamen history and geography stories. Xiamen University Press.

Huang, J. M. (1989). Historical Materials on Sino-US Relations. Institute of Modern History, Academia Sinica.

Huang, Z. S., He, S. B. (2009). History of Filipino Overseas Chinese. Guangdong Higher Education Press.

Lansdowne, K. G. (1902). Sir J. Mackay’s Negotiation. The National Archives.

Li, K. B. (2005). Britain Traders in China and Course of Independent Trade before the Opium War. Journal of Yibin University, 3, 41-44.

Liang, B. Y. (2004). Hard Diplomacy: A Study on the Chinese Ambassador to the United States in the Late Qing Dynasty. Tianjin Ancient Books Publishing House.

Lindblom, C. E. (1997). Politics and Markets: The World’s Political Economic Systems. Basic Books.

Little, E. S. (1902). The Chinese Revenue and the New Treaty: A Protest against an Increased Tariff from a Merchant’s Point of View. The National Archives.

Liu, X. X., Liu, H. Y. (1984). Foreign Relations of the United States, 1901, Appendix. Affairs in China. Report of William W. Rockhill, Late Commissioner to China, with Accompanying Documents. Shandong Qilu Book Publishing Co., Ltd.

Luo, Y. D. (2010). History of Likin in China. The Commercial Press.

Mackay, J. (1902a). To Lansdowne, K. G. The National Archives.

Mackay, J. (1902b). James Mackay to the Shanghai Branch of the China Association. The National Archives.

Mackay, J. (1902c). To Lansdowne, K. G. The National Archives.

Manchester Chamber of Commerce. (1902). To the Under Secretary of State. The National Archives.

Milner, H. (1997). Interests, Institutions, and Information: Domestic Politics and International Relations. Princeton University Press.

Nelch, J. (1902). To Francis Bertie K. C. B. The National Archives.

Philippine Chinese Charitable Association Inc. (1977). Philippine Chinese Charitable Association Inc. 100th Anniversary Souvenir Book. Philippine Chinese Charitable Association Inc. Press.

Ren, Q., Ma, Z. W. (2015). Zhang Yinhuan’s Diary. Zhonghua Book Company.

Song, P. (1995). Exploring the Philippine Overseas Chinese Charitable Association Inc. Southeast Asian Affairs, 4, 51-75.

Spear, H. J. (1901). The Bristol Chamber of Commerce to the China Association. The National Archives.

The First Historical Archives of China. (2003). A compilation of archival historical materials on the relations between China and Southeast Asian countries in the Qing Dynasty. International Culture Publishing Company.

The North-China Herald. (1902). The New Treaty. The North-China Herald Vol. LXIX., No.1830.

Wang, S. H. (1985). Boxer Indemnity. Institute of Modern History, Academia Sinica.

Wang, T. Y. (1957). Compilation of Chinese and Foreign Old Testament Chapter. Joint Publishing Company.

Wang, Y. W., Wang, L. (2015). Historical Materials on Diplomacy during the Qing Dynasty. Human Normal University Press.

Wickberg, E. (1965). The Chinese in Philippine Life 1850–1898. Yale University Press.

Wilson, A. R. (2004). Ambition and Identity Chinese Merchant Elite in Colonial Manil 1880–1916. University of Hawai ‘i Press.

Yang, L. X. (2019). Collected Works of Yang Shengmao. Nankai University Press.

Yuan, S. Y., Sun, H. F., Li, B. X. (1998). Complete Works of Zhang Zhidon. Hebei People’s Publishing House.

Zhang, J. (2014). On British “Reticent Policy” in 1830 and Its Influences. Journal of Xinyang. 34(1): 137-140.

Zhang, K. (2011). Welfare Institutions and Activities of British and American Seafarers in China before the Opium War. Jinan Journal (Philosophy & Social Sciences). 33(1), 134-139.

Zhuang, G. T., Liu, W. Z. (2009). The Formation and Development of Chinese Society in East Asia: Chinese Business Network, Immigration, and Integration Trends. Xiamen University Press.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.24294/jipd.v8i4.3425

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2024 Wei Yao, Tingxuan Liu, Yuhong Li

License URL: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

This site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.