Reforming China’s healthcare management in the wake of COVID-19: A psychological well-being perspective

Leilei Jiang, Walton Wider, Jem Cloyd M. Tanucan, Jonna Karla C. Bien

Article ID: 2680
Vol 7, Issue 3, 2023

VIEWS - 195 (Abstract) 124 (PDF)

Abstract


The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a reevaluation of global health capabilities, highlighting the importance of prioritizing the welfare of frontline healthcare workers. These individuals encountered difficult circumstances on a global scale, including longer work hours, heightened risk of virus exposure, and substantial strain on their mental and physical well-being. Healthcare professionals in China faced similar challenges. This article discusses systemic issues that have been exacerbated by the pandemic and argues for a sustained emphasis on the well-being of healthcare workers, rather than solely addressing it as a crisis response. Given the increasing likelihood of future global pandemics, it is crucial to emphasize the establishment of a durable support system that can enhance resilience and crisis management capabilities. This study examines the systemic challenges of the Chinese healthcare system, with a particular focus on the difficulties encountered during the pandemic. We advocate for a paradigm shift that acknowledges healthcare workers as essential stakeholders within healthcare systems. The objective is to encourage a worldwide conversation for implementing initiatives that transcend national boundaries, with the goal of consistently incorporating a culture of compassion and assistance into healthcare systems. We propose the implementation of a comprehensive support system that encompasses all facets of healthcare, going beyond the mere management of crises. Our vision is for health systems to prioritize the well-being of healthcare workers and the communities they serve, with a focus on resilience.

Keywords


healthcare workers; physical health; mental health; well-being; healthcare system; China

Full Text:

PDF


References


Alkhawaldeh JFM, Soh KL, Mukhtar F, et al. (2020). Stress management training program for stress reduction and coping improvement in public health nurses: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Advanced Nursing 76(11): 3123–3135. doi: 10.1111/jan.14506

Baskin RG, Bartlett, R. (2021). Healthcare worker resilience during the COVID‐19 pandemic: An integrative review. Journal of Nursing Management 29(8): 2329–2342. doi: 10.1111/jonm.13395

Best S, Williams SJ (2021). What have we learnt about the sourcing of personal protective equipment during pandemics? Leadership and management in healthcare supply chain management: a scoping review. Frontiers in Public Health 9: 765501. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2021.765501

Blumenthal D, Fowler EJ, Abrams M, Collins SR (2020). Covid-19—implications for the health care system. New England Journal of Medicine 383(15): 1483–1488. doi: 10.1056/NEJMsb2021088

Bodenheimer T, Sinsky C (2014). From triple to quadruple aim: care of the patient requires care of the provider. The Annals of Family Medicine 12(6): 573–576. doi: 10.1370/afm.1713

Bown CP (2022). How COVID‐19 medical supply shortages led to extraordinary trade and industrial policy. Asian Economic Policy Review 17(1): 114–135. doi: 10.1111/aepr.12359

Brand SL, Thompson Coon J, Fleming LE, et al. (2017). Whole-system approaches to improving the health and wellbeing of healthcare workers: A systematic review. PloS One 12(12): e0188418. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188418

Branjerdporn G, Bowman C, Kenworthy S, Stapelberg NJ (2022). Interventional response of hospital and health services to the mental health effects of viral outbreaks on health professionals. Frontiers in Psychiatry 13: 812365. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2022.812365

Brouwers EP (2020). Social stigma is an underestimated contributing factor to unemployment in people with mental illness or mental health issues: position paper and future directions. BMC Psychology 8: 1–7. doi: 10.1186/s40359-020-00399-0

Brower KJ, Brazeau CM, Kiely SC, et al. (2021). The evolving role of the chief wellness officer in the management of crises by health care systems: Lessons from the Covid-19 pandemic. NEJM Catalyst Innovations in Care Delivery 2(5). doi: 10.1056/CAT.20.0612

Brown L, Haines S, Amonoo HL, et al. (2021). Sources of resilience in frontline health professionals during COVID-19. Healthcare 9: 1699. doi: 10.3390/healthcare9121699

Cao Y, Shan J, Gong Z, et al. (2020). Status and challenges of public health emergency management in China related to COVID-19. Frontiers in Public Health 8: 250. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2020.00250

Chandawarkar A, Chaparro JD. (2021). Burnout in clinicians. Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care 51(11): 101104. doi: 10.1016/j.cppeds.2021.101104

Chen S, Li F, Lin C, et al. (2020). Challenges and recommendations for mental health providers during the COVID-19 pandemic: The experience of China’s first university-based mental health team. Globalization and Health 16, 1–10. doi: 10.1186/s12992-020-00591-2

Chua GT, Tung KT, Kwan MYW, et al. (2021). Multilevel factors affecting healthcare workers’ perceived stress and risk of infection during COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Public Health 66: 599408. doi: 10.3389/ijph.2021.599408

Conrad K, Saeed R (2022). Wellness in Physicians in the Era of the COVID-19 Pandemic. In: Clinical Approaches to Hospital Medicine: Advances, Updates and Controversies. Springer International Publishing. pp. 243–253

Creese J, Byrne JP, Conway E, et al. (2021). “We all really need to just take a breath”: Composite narratives of hospital doctors’ well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18(4): 2051. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18042051

David E, DePierro JM, Marin DB, et al. (2021). COVID-19 pandemic support programs for healthcare workers and implications for occupational mental health: A narrative review. Psychiatric Quarterly. doi: 10.1007/s11126-021-09952-5

de Vries N, Boone A, Godderis L, et al. (2023). The race to retain healthcare workers: A systematic review on factors that impact retention of nurses and physicians in hospitals. INQUIRY: The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing 60: 00469580231159318. doi: 10.1177/00469580231159318

Deng Y, Chen Y, Zhang B (2021). Different prevalence trend of depression and anxiety among healthcare workers and general public before and after the peak of COVID-19 occurred in China: A meta-analysis. Asian Journal of Psychiatry 56: 102547. doi: 10.1016/j.ajp.2021.102547

Ding S, Deng S, Zhang Y, et al. (2021). Experiences of front-line medical staffs fighting against coronavirus disease 2019: A meta-synthesis of qualitative studies. Available online: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3761833 (accessed on 25 July 2023)

Du J, Mayer G, Hummel S, et al. (2020). Mental health burden in different professions during the final stage of the COVID-19 lockdown in China: Cross-sectional survey study. Journal of Medical Internet Research 22(12): e24240. doi: 10.2196/24240

Durski KN, Osterholm M, Majumdar SS, et al. (2020). Shifting the paradigm: using disease outbreaks to build resilient health systems. BMJ Global Health 5(5): e002499. doi: 10.1136/bmjgh-2020-002499

Fan J, Jiang Y, Hu K, et al. (2020). Barriers to using personal protective equipment by healthcare staff during the COVID-19 outbreak in China. Medicine 99(48). doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000023310

Filip R, Gheorghita Puscaselu R, Anchidin-Norocel L, et al. (2022). Global challenges to public health care systems during the COVID-19 pandemic: A review of pandemic measures and problems. Journal of Personalized Medicine 12(8): 1295. doi: 10.3390/jpm12081295

Franklin P, Gkiouleka A (2021). A scoping review of psychosocial risks to health workers during the Covid-19 pandemic. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18(5): 2453. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18052453

Hamilton T, Arespacochaga E, Mccallister D, et al. (2021). Organisational support of physician well-being: A survey of healthcare executives. Management in Healthcare 5(4): 349–360.

Hou H, Pei Y, Yang Y, et al. (2021). Factors associated with turnover intention among healthcare workers during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in China. Risk Management and Healthcare Policy: 4953–4965. doi: 10.2147/RMHP.S318106

Khalil M, Mataria A, Ravaghi H (2022). Building resilient hospitals in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: Lessons from the COVID-19 pandemic. BMJ Global Health. doi: 10.1136/bmjgh-2022-008754

Kaur W, Balakrishnan V, Chen YY, Periasamy J (2022). Mental health risk factors and coping strategies among students in Asia Pacific during COVID-19 pandemic—A scoping review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19(15): 8894. 10.3390/ijerph19158894

Kinman G, Teoh K, Harriss A (2020). Supporting the well-being of healthcare workers during and after COVID-19. Occupational Medicine 70(5): 294–296. doi: 10.1093/occmed/kqaa096

Kotera Y, Maxwell-Jones R, Edwards AM, Knutton N (2021). Burnout in professional psychotherapists: Relationships with self-compassion, work–life balance, and telepressure. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18(10): 5308. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18105308

Kwame A, Petrucka PM (2021). A literature-based study of patient-centered care and communication in nurse-patient interactions: Barriers, facilitators, and the way forward. BMC Nursing 20(1): 1–10. doi: 10.1186/s12912-021-00684-2

Lai J, Ma S, Wang Y, et al. (2020). Factors associated with mental health outcomes among health care workers exposed to coronavirus disease 2019. JAMA Network Open 3(3): e203976-e203976. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.3976

Lee Y, Tao W, Li JYQ, Sun R (2021). Enhancing employees’ knowledge sharing through diversity-oriented leadership and strategic internal communication during the COVID-19 outbreak. Journal of Knowledge Management 25(6): 1526–1549. doi: 10.1108/JKM-06-2020-0483

Li J, Xu J, Zhou H, et al. (2021). Working conditions and health status of 6,317 front line public health workers across five provinces in China during the COVID-19 epidemic: A cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health 21(1): 1–14. doi: 10.1186/s12889-020-10146-0

Li W, Yang Y, Liu ZH, et al. (2020). Progression of mental health services during the COVID-19 outbreak in China. International Journal of Biological Sciences 16(10): 1732. doi: 10.7150/ijbs.45120

Marinaci T, Venuleo C, Savarese G (2021). The COVID-19 pandemic from the health workers’ perspective: Between health emergency and personal crisis. Human Arenas: 1–21. doi: 10.1007/s42087-021-00232-z

Maulik PK, Thornicroft G, Saxena S (2020). Roadmap to strengthen global mental health systems to tackle the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Mental Health Systems 14: 1–13. doi: 10.1186/s13033-020-00393-4

Ohrling M, Solberg Carlsson K, Brommels M (2022). No man is an island: management of the emergency response to the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) outbreak in a large public decentralised service delivery organisation. BMC Health Services Research 22(1): 1–17. doi: 10.1071/HC20082

Posluns K, Gall TL (2020). Dear mental health practitioners, take care of yourselves: A literature review on self-care. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling 42: 1–20. doi: 10.1007/s10447-019-09382-w

Qi M, Hu X, Liu J, et al. (2022). The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the prevalence and risk factors of workplace violence among healthcare workers in China. Frontiers in Public Health 10: 938423. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2022.938423

Ripp J, Peccoralo L, Charney D (2020). Attending to the emotional well-being of the health care workforce in a New York City health system during the COVID- 19 pandemic. Academic Medicine. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000003414

Robertson LJ, Maposa I, Somaroo H, Johnson O (2020). Mental health of healthcare workers during the COVID-19 outbreak: A rapid scoping review to inform provincial guidelines in South Africa. South African Medical Journal 110(10): 1010–1019. doi: 10.7196/SAMJ.2020.v110i10.15022

Sagan A, Bryndova L, Kowalska-Bobko I, et al. (2022). A reversal of fortune: Comparison of health system responses to COVID-19 in the Visegrad group during the early phases of the pandemic. Health Policy 126(5): 446–455. doi: 10.1016/j.healthpol.2021.10.009

Samy AL, Awang Bono S, Tan SL, Low WY. (2021). Mental health and COVID-19: policies, guidelines, and initiatives from the Asia-Pacific region. Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health 33(8), 839–846. doi: 10.1177/10105395211025901

Sanchez-Reilly S, Morrison LJ, Carey E, et al. (2013). Caring for oneself to care for others: physicians and their self-care. The Journal of Supportive Oncology 11(2): 75. doi: 10.12788/j.suponc.0003

Shafi M, Liu J, Jian D, et al. (2021). Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on rural communities: A cross-sectional study in the Sichuan Province of China. BMJ Open 11(8): e046745. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-046745

Shah AH, Becene IA, Nguyen KTNH, et al. (2022). A qualitative analysis of psychosocial stressors and health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on frontline healthcare personnel in the United States. SSM-Qualitative Research in Health 2: 100130. doi: 10.1016/j.ssmqr.2022.100130

Shah SM, Sun T, Xu W, et al. (2022). The mental health of China and Pakistan, mental health laws and COVID-19 mental health policies: A comparative review. General Psychiatry 35(5). doi: 10.1136/gpsych-2022-100885

Shamshiri M, Ajri-Khameslou M, Dashti-Kalantar R, Molaei B (2023). Management strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic crisis: The experiences of health managers from Iran, Ardabil province. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness 17: e140. doi: 10.1017/dmp.2022.51

Sharma N, Hasan Z, Velayudhan A, et al. (2020). Personal protective equipment: Challenges and strategies to combat COVID-19 in India: A narrative review. Journal of Health Management 22(2): 157–168. doi: 10.1177/0972063420935540

Sigala IF, Sirenko M, Comes T, Kovács G (2022). Mitigating personal protective equipment (PPE) supply chain disruptions in pandemics — A system dynamics approach. International Journal of Operations & Production Management 42(13): 128–154. doi: 10.1108/ijopm-09-2021-0608

Søvold LE, Naslund JA, Kousoulis AA, et al. (2021). Prioritizing the mental health and well-being of healthcare workers: An urgent global public health priority. Frontiers in Public Health 9: 679397. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2021.679397

Stennett J, Hou R, Traverson L, et al. (2022). Lessons learned from the resilience of Chinese hospitals to the COVID-19 pandemic: Scoping review. JMIRx Med 3(2): e31272. doi: 10.2196/31272

Strong J, Drummond S, Hanson J, et al. (2021). Outcomes of rapid digital transformation of large-scale communications during the COVID-19 pandemic. Australian Health Review 45(6): 696–703. doi: 10.1071/AH21125

Su W, Hahn J (2022). Self-leadership and psychological capital as mediators in the influence of leader motivating language on everyday innovative behavior. International Journal of Business Communication. doi: 10.1177/23294884221119453

Sun Y, Wu Y, Fan S, et al. (2023). Comparison of mental health symptoms before and during the covid-19 pandemic: Evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis of 134 cohorts. BMJ. doi: 10.1136/bmj-2022-074224

van den Broek A, van Hoorn L, Tooten Y, de Vroege L (2023). The moderating effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental wellbeing of health care workers on sustainable employability: A scoping review. Frontiers in Psychiatry 13: 1067228. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2022.1067228

Vogus TJ, Gallan A, Rathert C, et al. (2020). Whose experience is it anyway? Toward a constructive engagement of tensions in patient-centered health care. Journal of Service Management 31(5): 979–1013. doi: 10.1108/JOSM-04-2020-0095

Wang J, Zhou M, Liu F (2020). Reasons for healthcare workers becoming infected with novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China. The Journal of Hospital Infection 105(1): 100–101. doi: 10.1016/j.jhin.2020.03.002

Yang Y, Lu L, Chen T, et al. (2021). Healthcare worker’s mental health and their associated predictors during the epidemic peak of COVID-19. Psychology Research and Behavior Management: 221–231. doi: 10.2147/PRBM.S290931

Ying Y, Ruan L, Kong F, et al. (2020). Mental health status among family members of health care workers in Ningbo, China, during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak: A cross-sectional study. BMC Psychiatry 20: 1–10. doi: 10.1186/s12888-020-02784-w

Zaçe D, Hoxhaj I, Orfino A, et al. (2021). Interventions to address mental health issues in healthcare workers during infectious disease outbreaks: A systematic review. Journal of Psychiatric Research 136: 319–333. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2021.02.019

Zhang M, Zhou M, Tang F, et al. (2020). Knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding COVID-19 among healthcare workers in Henan, China. Journal of Hospital Infection 105(2): 183–187. doi: 10.1016/j.jhin.2020.04.012

Zhang WR, Wang K, Yin L, et al. (2020). Mental health and psychosocial problems of medical health workers during the COVID-19 epidemic in China. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 89(4): 242–250. doi: 10.1159/000507639

Zhao Y, Liang W, Luo Y, et al. (2020). Personal protective equipment protecting healthcare workers in the Chinese epicentre of COVID-19. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 26(12): 1716–1718. doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2020.07.029

Zheng L, Wang X, Zhou C, et al. (2020). Analysis of the infection status of healthcare workers in Wuhan during the COVID-19 outbreak: A cross-sectional study. Clinical Infectious Diseases 71(16): 2109–2113. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa588

Zou X, Liu S, Li J, et al. (2021). Factors associated with healthcare workers’ insomnia symptoms and fatigue in the fight against COVID-19, and the role of organizational support. Frontiers in Psychiatry 12: 652717. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2021.652717




DOI: https://doi.org/10.24294/jipd.v7i3.2680

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2023 Walton Wider

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License
This site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.