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Author Guidelines

Before your submission, please check that your manuscript has been prepared in accordance to the step-by-step instructions for submitting a manuscript to our online submission system. We recommend that you keep this page open for your reference as you move through the submission process.

If there are any differences in author guidelines between the print and online version, it is recommended that authors refer to the online version for use.

Manuscript Format

Your manuscript should be in MS Word format. You are advised to download the document, JIPD Manuscript Submission Template, as a template or for more details on preparing your submissions for consideration.

All manuscripts must be written in clear, comprehensible English. Both American and British English are acceptable. Usage of non-English words should be kept to a minimum and all must be italicized (except for e.g. and i.e.) If you have concerns about the level of English in your submission, please ensure that it is proofread before submission by a native English speaker or a scientific editing service. 

Cover letter 

All submissions should include a cover letter as a separate file. A cover letter should contain a brief explanation of what was previously known, the conceptual advancement with the findings and its significance to broad readership. The cover letter is confidential and will be read only by the editors. It will not be seen by reviewers.

The title should capture the conceptual significance for a broad audience. The title should not be more than 50 words and should be able to give readers an overall view of the paper’s significance. Titles should avoid using uncommon jargons, abbreviations and punctuation.

List of Authors
The names of authors must be spelled out rather than set in initials with their affiliations footnoted. Authors should be listed according to the extent of their contribution, with the major contributor listed first. All corresponding authors (maximum 2) should be identified with an asterisk. Affiliations should contain the following core information: department, institution, city, state, postal code, and country. For contact, email address of only one corresponding author is expected within the manuscript. Please note that all authors must see and approve the final version of the manuscript before submitting.

Articles must include an abstract containing a maximum of 200 words. The purpose of abstract is to provide sufficient information for a reader to determine whether or not to proceed to the full text of the article. After the abstract, please give 5-8 key words; please avoid using the same words as those already used in the title.

Section Headings
Please number all section headings, subheadings and sub-subheadings. Use boldface to identify major headings (e.g. 1, 23, etc.) and subheadings (e.g. 1.1, 1.2, 2.1, 2.2 etc.) For the sub-subheadings, please distinguish it further using non-boldface numbers in parenthesis (e.g. (1), (2), (3), etc.)

Introduction should provide a background that gives a broad readership an overall outlook of the field and the research performed. It tackles a problem and states its important regarding with the significance of the study. Introduction can conclude with a brief statement of the aim of the work and a comment about whether that aim was achieved.

Materials and Methods
This section provides the general experimental design and methodologies used. The aim is to provide enough detail to for other investigators to fully replicate your results. It is also required to facilitate better understanding of the results obtained. Protocols and procedures for new methods must be included in detail to reproduce the experiments.

Ethics information, including IACUC permit numbers and/or IRB name, if applicable. This information should be included in a subheading labeled "Ethics Statement" in the "Methods" section of your manuscript file, in as much detail as possible.

This section can be divided into subheadings. This section focuses on the results of the experiments performed.

This section should provide the significance of the results and identify the impact of the research in a broader context. It should not be redundant or similar to the content of the results section.

Please use the conclusion section for interpretation only, and not to summarize information already presented in the text or abstract.

Conflict of Interest
All authors are required to declare all activities that have the potential to be deemed as a source of competing interest in relations to their submitted manuscript. Examples of such activities could include personal or work-related relationships, events, etc. Authors who have nothing to declare are encouraged to add "No conflict of interest was reported by all authors" in this section.

Authors should declare all financial and non-financial support that have the potential to be deemed as a source of competing interest in relations to their submitted manuscript in this section. Financial supports are generally in the form of grants, royalties, consulting fees and more. Examples of non-financial support could include the following: externally-supplied equipments/biological sources, writing assistance, administrative support, contributions from non-authors etc.

This section is optional and is for all materials (e.g. advanced technical details) that has been excluded from the main text but remain essential to readers in understanding the manuscripts. This section is not for supplementary figures. Authors are advised to refer to the section on ‘Supplementary figures’ for such submissions.

The text of the manuscript should be in Microsoft Word or Latex. The length of the manuscript cannot be more than 50000 characters (inclusive of spaces) or approximately 7000 words.

Nomenclature for genes and proteins
This journal aims to reach researchers all over the globe. Hence, for both reviewers’ and readers’ ease in comprehension, authors are highly encourage to use the appropriate gene and protein nomenclature. Authors may prefer to utilize resources such as

Authors should include all figures into the manuscript and submit it as 1 file in the OJS system. Reference to the “Instructions for Typesetting manuscript” is strongly encouraged. Figures include photographs, scanned images, graphs, charts and schematic diagrams. Figures submitted should avoid unnecessary decorative effects (e.g. 3D graphs) as well as be minimally processed (e.g. changes in brightness and contrast applied uniformly for the entire figure). It should also be set against a white background. Please remember to label all figures (e.g. axis etc.) and add in captions (below the figure) as required. These captions should be numbered (e.g. Figure 1Figure 2, etc.) in boldface. All figures must have a brief title (also known as caption) that describes the entire figure without citing specific panels, followed by a legend defined as description of each panel. Please identify each panel with uppercase letters in parenthesis (e.g. A, B, C, etc.)

The preferred file formats for any separately submitted figure(s) are TIFF or JPEG. All figures should be legible in print form and of optimal resolution. Optimal resolutions preferred are 300 dots per inch for RBG coloured, 600 dots per inch for greyscale and 1200 dots per inch for line art. Although there are no file size limitation imposed, authors are highly encouraged to compress their figures to an ideal size without unduly affecting legibility and resolution of figures. This will also speed up the process of uploading in the submission system if necessary.

The Editor-in-Chief and Publisher reserve the right to request from author(s) the high-resolution files and unprocessed data and metadata files should the need arise at any point after manuscript submission for reasons such as production, evaluation or other purposes. The file name should allow for ease in identifying the associated manuscript submitted.

Tables, lists and equations
Tables, lists and equations must be submitted together with the manuscript. Likewise, lists and equations should be properly aligned and its meaning clear to readers. Tables created using Microsoft Word table function are preferred. Place each table in your manuscript file right after the paragraph in which it is first cited. Do not submit your tables in separate files. The tables should include a concise but sufficiently explanatory title at the top. Vertical lines should not be used to separate columns. Leave some extra space between the columns instead. All tables should be based on three horizontal lines to separate the caption, header and body. A few additional horizontal lines MAY be included as needed (example below). Any explanations essential to the understanding of the table should be given in footnotes at the bottom of the table. SI units should be used.

Supplementary information
This section is optional and contains all materials and figures that have been excluded from the entire manuscript. These information are relevant to the manuscript but remains non-essential to readers’ understanding of the manuscript’s main content. All supplementary information should be submitted as a separate file in Step 4 during submission. Please ensure the names of such files contain ‘suppl. info’.

In-text citations

Reference citations in the text should be in APA style, that is the author-date citation system. There are two types of in-text citations: narrative citations and parenthetical citations.

Narrative citations:

Arellano and Bond (1991) proposed a new GMM estimator for dynamic panel models.

Parenthetical citations:

The quick development of digital economy has reduced the cost of residents’ commodity search (Stigler, 1961; Brynjolfsson and Oh, 2012) and realized the residents’ 24/7 consumption at all times and places. 

In finance, search cost refers to the cost of the search activity itself in the financial market (Fink et al., 2020).

Personal communications and unpublished works can only be used in the main text of the submission and are not to be placed in the Reference section. Authors are advised to limit such usage to the minimum. They should also be easily identifiable by stating the authors and year of such unpublished works or personal communications and the word Unpublished” in parenthesis.

E.g. (Smith J, 2000, Unpublished)


This section is compulsory and should be placed at the end of all manuscripts. Do not use footnotes or endnotes as a substitute for a reference list. The list of references should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications and unpublished works should be excluded from this section.

The list should be in alphabetical order by surname of the first author. If the referred article has more than three authors, list only the first three authors and abbreviate the remaining authors to et al.” (meaning: and others).


• Author 1 FM, Author 2 FM, Author 3 FM, et al. (Year). Title of the article. Journal Name Volume(Issue) (if available): Firstpage–Lastpage. doi (if available)

e.g., Petitti DB, Crooks VC, Buckwalter JG, et al. (2005). Blood pressure levels before dementia. Archives of Neurology 62(1): 112–116. doi: 10.1001/archneur.62.1.112

Article in a language other than English

• Author 1 FM, Author 2 FM, Author 3 FM, et al. (Year). English title of the article (language). Journal Name Volume(Issue) (if available): Firstpage–Lastpage. doi (if available)

e.g., Massone L, Borghi S, Pestarino A (1987). Purpuric palmarsites of dermatitis herpetiformis (French). Annual Dermatol Venerol 114(12): 1545–1547.


Book without editors

• Author 1 FM, Author 2 FM (Year). Chapter (optional). In: Title of the Book, Edition (if available). Publisher. pp. Page range (optional).

e.g., Cerdá C (2014). Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Non‐communicable Diseases—Molecular Mechanisms and Perspectives in Therapeutics. Springer International Publishing.

e.g., Desiraju GR, Steiner T (1999). The Weak Hydrogen Bond in Structural Chemistry and Biology, 2nd ed. Oxford University Press. pp. 10–25.


Book with editors

• Author 1 FM, Author 2 FM (Year). Title of the contribution. In: Editor 1 FM, Editor 2 FM (editors). Title of the Book, Edition (if available). Publisher. Volume (optional), pp. Page range (optional).

e.g., Almlof J, Gropen O (1996). Relativistic effects in chemistry. In: Lipkowitz KB, Boyd DB (editors). Reviews in Computational Chemistry. VCH. Volume 8. pp. 206–210.

• In a translated book, put the translators’ names after the editors’ names: “Translator 1 FM (translator)” or “Translator 1 FM, Translator 2 FM (translators)”. For example:

e.g., Tessier J (1982). Structure, synthesis and physical—Chemical properties of deltamethrin. In: Tessier J (editor). Walden BVdG (translator). Deltamethrin Monograph. Roussel‐Uclaf.

• If the editors and translators are the same, the format should be as in the following example:

e.g., Gadamer HG (1989). Hermeneutics and logocentrism. In: Michelfelder DP, Palmer RE (editors and translators). Dialogue and Deconstruction: The Gadamer‐Derrida Debate. State University of New York Press. pp. 114–125.


Full citations of published abstracts (proceedings)

In most cases, the proceedings will be simply called “Proceedings of the Name of the Conference (full name)” without a book title. In this case, please only add the conference name in the proceedings’ title and keep that in regular face (i.e., do no italicize):

 Author 1 FM, Author 2 FM, Author 3 FM, et al. (Year). Title of presentation. In: Proceedings of the Name of the Conference; Date of Conference (Day Month Year) (if available); Location of Conference (City, Country) (if available). Abstract Number (optional), Pagination (optional).

e.g., Chum O, Philbin J, Zisserman A (2008). Near duplicate image detection: Min‐Hash and tf‐idf weighting. In: Proceedings of the 19th British Machine Vision Conference (BMVC 2008); 1–4 September 2008; Leeds, UK. pp. 812–815.


If the proceedings are published as a book with a separate title (i.e., not “Proceedings of the Name of the Conference (full name)” as the title), the Book Titles is in italic:

 Author 1 FM, Author 2 FM, Author 3 FM (Year). Title of presentation. In: Editor 1 FM, Editor 2 FM (editors) (if available). Title of Collected Work, Proceedings of the Name of the Conference; Date of Conference (Day Month Year) (if available); Location of Conference (City, Country) (if available). Publisher. Abstract Number (optional), Pagination (optional).

e.g., Beebe N (2009). Digital forensic research: The good, the bad and the unaddressed. In: Advances in Digital Forensics V, Proceedings of the Fifth IFIP WG 11.9 International Conference on Digital Forensics; 26–28 January 2009; Orlando, FL, USA. Springer. Volume V, pp. 17–36.

Oral presentations without published material

 Author 1 FM, Author 2 FM, Author 3 FM (Year). Title of presentation (if any). Presented at the Name of Conference; Date of Conference (Day Month Year) (if available); Location of Conference (City, Country) (if available); Paper number (if available).

e.g., Zhang Z, Chen H, Zhong J, et al. (2006). ZnO nanotip‐based QCM biosensors. Presented at the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and Exposition; 4–7 June 2006; Miami, FL, USA.


• Author FM (Year). Title of Thesis [Level of thesis]. Degree‐Granting University.

e.g., Mäckel H (2004). Capturing the Spectra of Silicon Solar Cells [PhD thesis]. The Australian National University.

The level of thesis can be called “XX thesis” or “XX dissertation”. Thesis types include but are not limited to the following:

  PhD thesis

  Master’s thesis

  Bachelor’s thesis

  Licentiate thesis

  Diploma thesis


• Author 1, Author 2, Author 3, et al. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Complete Date, Pagination (if available).

e.g.: Squires S (2005). Falling short on nutrients. The Washington Post, 4 October 2005, p. H1.



• Patent Owner 1, Patent Owner 2, Patent Owner 3 (Year). Title of Patent. Patent Number, Date (Day Month Year, the Application granted date).

e.g., Sheem SK (2004). Low‐Cost Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor. U.S. Patent 6,738,537, 18 May 2004.

e.g., Thomas WM, Nicholas ED, Needham JC, et al. (1991). Friction Stir Butt Welding. International Patent Application No. PCT/GB92/02203; GB Patent Application No. 9125978.8; U.S. Patent Application No. 5,460,317, 6 December 1991.

Unpublished work

• Author 1 FM, Author 2 FM (Year) (if available). Title of unpublished work. Journal Title Phrase Indicating Stage of Publication (submitted, in press, etc.).

e.g., Guo L, Zhu Y, Gunawan O, et al. (2014). Electrodeposited Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin film solar cell with 7% power conversion efficiency. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications; in press.


Online resources

• Author (if available) (Year). Title of content (if available). Available online: http://URL (accessed on Day Month Year). In case of a homepage, the access date is not required.

e.g., Weier MH (2012). In a big win for HP, Wal‐Mart chooses Neoview Data Warehouse. Available online: (accessed on 2 June 2012).


Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  1. The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  2. The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, RTF, or WordPerfect document file format.
  3. Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  4. The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  5. The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal.
  6. If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed.

Copyright Notice

Author(s) shall retain the copyright of their work and grant the Journal/Publisher rights for the first publication with the work concurrently licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 International License.

Under this license, author(s) will allow third parties to download, reuse, reprint, modify, distribute and/or copy the content under the condition that the authors are given credit and that the work is not used for commercial purposes. No permission is required from the authors or the publisher.

This broad license intends to facilitate free access, as well as the unrestricted use of original works of all types. This ensures that the published work is freely and openly available in perpetuity.


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