Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis improves growth and antioxidative response of Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) under salt stress.

Siamak Shirani Bidabadi 1, Majid Masoumian 2


To investigate the possible role of arbuscular mycrrhizal fungi (AMF) in alleviating the negative effects of salinity on Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.), the regenerated plantlets in tissue culture was transferred to pots in greenhouse and inoculated with Glomus intraradices. Salinity caused a significant decrease in chlorophyll content, photosynthesis efficiency and enhanced the electrolyte leakage. The use of AMF in salt –affected plants resulted in improved all above mentioned characteristics. Hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents increased in salt stressed plants while a reduction was observed due to AMF inoculation. CAT activity showed a significant increase up to 2 g/l and then followed by decline at 5 g/l NaCl in both AMF and non-AMF treated stevia, however, AMF inoculated plants maintained lower CAT activity at all salinity levels (2 and 5 g/l). Enhanced POX activities in salt- treated stevia plants were decreased by inoculation of plants with AMF. The addition of NaCl to stevia plants also resulted in an enhanced activity of SOD whilst, AMF plants maintained higher SOD activity at all salinity levels than those of non-AMF inoculated plants. AMF inoculation was capable of alleviating the damage caused by salinity on stevia plants by reducing oxidative stress and improving photosynthesis efficiency. 


Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi; salinity; Stevia rebaudiana; antioxidant enzymes; oxidative stress; photosynthesis.

Full Text:



Alqarawi AA, Abd Allah EF, Hashem A. Alleviation of salt-induced adverse impact via mycorrhizal fungi in Ephedra aphylla Forssk. Journal of Plant Interactions. 2014; 9(1): 802- 810.

Arya A, Buch H. Response of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on growth and chlorophyll content of three varieties of Gossypium herbaceum L. Plant Pathol Quar.2013; 3: 54–57.

Bhosale KS, Shinde BP. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on proline and chlorophyll content in Zingiber officinale Rosc grown under water stress. Indian J Fundam Appl Life Sci.2011; 1: 172–176.

Cantabella D, Piqueras A, Acosta-Motos JR, et al. Salt tolerance mechanisms induced in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni: Effects on mineral nutrition, antioxidative metabolism and steviol glycoside content. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. Doi: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.04.023

Colla G, Rouphael Y, Cardarelli M, et al. Alleviation of salt stress by arbuscular mycorrhizal in zucchini plants grown at low and high phosphorus concentration. Biology and Fertility of Soils. 2008; 44: 501–509.

Cony MA, Trione SO. Inter and intraspecific variability in Prosopis flexuosa and P. chilensis seed germination under salt and moisture stress. J. Arid Environ. 1998;40: 307–317

Creus CM, Sueldo RJ, Barassi CA. Water relations in Azospirillum inoculated wheat seedlings under osmotic stress. Can J Bot. 1998;76: 238–244.

Elhindi KM, El-Din AS, Elgorban AM. The impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in mitigating salt-induced adverse effects in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences.2017; 24: 170-179.

Estrada B, Aroca R, Barea JM, et al. Native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi isolated from a saline habitat improved maize antioxidant systems and plant tolerance to salinity. Plant Sci.2013; 201: 42–51.

Evelin H, Kapoor R, Giri B. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in alleviation of salt stress: a review. Annals of Botany. 2009;104: 1263- 1280.

Giri B, Mukerji KG. Mycorrhizal inoculant alleviates salt stress in Sesbania aegyptiaca and Sesbania grandiflora under field conditions: evidence for reduced sodium and improved magnesium uptake. Mycorrhiza.2004; 14: 307–312.

Hajar EWI, Sulaiman AZB, Sakinah AMM. Assessment of heavy metals tolerance in leaves, stems and flowers of Stevia rebaudiana plant. Procedia Environ. Sci. 2014;20: 386–393.

Hashem A, Abd-Allah EF, Alqarawi AA, et al. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi enhances salinity tolerance of Panicum turgidum Forssk by altering photosynthetic and antioxidant pathways. Journal of Plant Interactions. 2015; 10(1): 230-242.

Ityel E, Lazarovitch N, Silberbush M, et al. An artificial barrier to improve root-zone conditions for horticultural crops: response of pepper plants to matric head and irrigation water salinity. Agric. Water Manage. 2012;105: 13–20

Kadian N, Yadav K, Badda N, et al. Application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in improving growth and nutrient of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub. Under saline soil. Int J Agron Plant Prod. 2013;4: 2796–2805.

Kaya C, Ashraf M, Sonmez O, et al. The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization on key growth parameters and fruit yield of pepper plants grown at high salinity. Scientia Horticulturae. 2009; 121: 1–6.

Kumar A, Sharma S, Mishra S, et al. Arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation improves growth and antioxidative response of Jatropha curcas (L.) under Na2SO4 salt stress. Plant Biosystems- DOI: 10.1080/11263504.2013.845268

Ozden M, Demirel U, Kahraman A. Effects of proline on antioxidant system in leaves of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) exposed to oxidative stress by H2O2. Scientia Horticulturae. 2009; 119: 163- 168.

Padmaja M, Sravanthi M, Hemalatha KPJ. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of two Indian medicinal plants. J Phytol. 2011;3(3): 86–91.

Pol J, Ostra EV, Karasek P, et al. Comparison of two different solvents employed for pressurised fluid extraction of stevioside from Stevia rebaudiana: methanol versus water. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 2008;388: 1847−1857.

Ramesh K, Virendra S, Megeji NW. Cultivation of stevia [Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) Bertoni]: a comprehensive review. Adv. Agron.2006; 89: 137–177

Reis M, Coelho L, Santos G, et al. Yield response of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) to the salinity of irrigation water. Agricultural Water Management. 2015; 152: 217- 221.

Ruiz-Lozano JM, Porcel R, Azcon C, et al. Regulation by arbuscular mycorrhizae of the integrated physiological response to salinity in plants: new challenges in physiological and molecular studies. J Exp Bot.2012; 63: 4033–4044.

Sannazzaro AI, Ruiz OA, Albetro EO, et al. Alleviation of salt stress in Lotus glaber by Glomus intraradies.Plant and Soil. 2006; 285: 279–287.

Shannon MC, Grieve CM. Tolerance of vegetable crops to salinity. Scientia. Horticulturea. 1999;78: 5–38

Sheng M, Tang M, Chan H, et al. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae on photosynthesis and water status of maize plants under salt stress. Mycorrhiza.2008; 18: 287–296.

Sherstha YH, Ishii T, Kadoya K. Effect of vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth, photosynthesis, transpiration and the distribution of photosynthates of bearing Satsuma mandarin trees. J. Jpn. Soc. Hortic. Sci.1995; 64: 517–525.

Tanwar BS. Saline Water Management for Irrigation. International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage, New Delhi, India. 2003.

Velikova V, Loreto F. On the relationship between isoprene emission and thermo tolerance in Phragmites ausrralis leaves exposed to high temperatures and during the recovery from a heat stress. Plant, Cell and Environment. 2005;28: 318–327.

Wang F, Zeng B, Sun Z, et al. Relationship between proline and Hg+2 – induced oxidative stress in tolerant rice mutant. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 2009;56: 723-731.

Wu N, Li Z, Wu F, et al. Comparative photochemistry activity and antioxidant responses in male and female Populus cathayana cutting inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi under salt. Scientific Reports. 2016; 6, 37663. DOI: 10.1038/srep37663

Yang SJ, Zhang ZL, Xue YX, et al. arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increase salt tolerance of apple seedlings. Botanical Studies 55:70. 2014;

Zeng J, Chen A, Li D, et al. Effect of salt stress on the growth, physiological responses, and glycoside contents of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2013;

Zuccarini P. Mycorrhizal infection ameliorates chlorophyll content and nutrient uptake of lettuce exposed to saline irrigation. Plant, Soil and Environment. 2007;53: 283–2



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License

This site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.