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Author Guidelines


Author Guidelines

Before submitting to our online submission systemplease carefully check that your manuscript has been prepared in accordance with the step-by-step instructions. The guide and the EnPress Manuscript Submission Template are updated and prepared specifically for those who are going to contribute or edit the manuscripts to be published in Trends in Horticulture since 2024 Volume 7 Issue 1. 


Manuscript Format

Your manuscript should be in the MS Word or Latex format. You are advised to follow the new manuscript template for more details for preparing your submissions to Trends in Horticulture for consideration. 

All manuscripts must be written in clear, comprehensible English. Both British and American English are accepted. The usage of non-English words should be kept to a minimum. If you have concerns about the level of English in your manuscript, please ensure that it is proofread by a native English speaker or a scientific editing service before submission.


Article types

Article: Scientific articles on the original basis and applied research and/or analysis.

Review: A summary highlighting recent developments and current/future trends in the field.

Book Review: A critical analysis of a recent publication, especially the perspective on the book’s merits or flaws with a comprehensive assessment.

Case Report: A summary of the execution of a collaborative research program that is directly related to the advancement of natural resource conservation and research. 

Editorial: Solicited concise commentary highlighting prominent topics in the Journal’s issue. These are official opinions of the editors of the Journal or a special issue of the Journal. Editorials will not undergo the peer review process.

Communication: Short articles describing significant findings, cutting-edge methods or experiments, and new technologies.

Hypothesis: Articles that present a novel argument and then interpret it with specific findings.

Opinion: Articles that present authors’ opinions on recent findings in any research area, along with a constructive discussion.

Perspective: Authors' personal opinions on a subject/topic. Unlike review articles, perspective articles may cover a more specific, narrow part of the field. However, these are still required to uphold the spirit of academia of being objective, as well as to aim to initiate or further discuss novel experimental procedures in the field. Therefore, perspective articles will undergo peer review and be indexed if accepted. Accepted articles may be solicited or unsolicited. 

Brief Report: Articles that report original research or preliminary findings with a short article length.

Cover Letter

It is best to submit a cover letter as a separate file along with the manuscript. A cover letter usually contains a brief explanation of your research standpoints, findings, and significance, as well as Informed Consent Statement or ethics approval ID (if available). The cover letter is confidential and only for the editors without reviewer access.



The title should capture the conceptual significance for a broad audience. The title should not be more than 50 words and should be able to give readers an overall view of the paper’s significance. Titles should avoid using uncommon jargons, abbreviations, and punctuations.

List of Authors

Authors should be listed according to the extent of their contribution, with the major contributor listed first (referring to Authorship Policy). All corresponding authors should be identified with an asterisk. Affiliations should contain the following core information: department, institution, and country. For contact information, the email address of at least one corresponding author must be included. Please note that all authors must approve the final version of the manuscript before submitting it.

Equal contribution: Authors contribute equally to the work, please mark a symbol (†) with each author.

e.g.: AA BB1,*,†, CC DD2,†, EE FF3.

 AA BB and CC DD contributed equally to this work and share first authorship.



The abstract is a brief description of the full text. The purpose of the abstract is to provide sufficient information for readers to determine whether or not to proceed to the full text of the article. It should briefly state the purpose, method, and results of the paper.


Keywords are required for most article types, and usually 5 to 8 keywords are listed, which are separated by semi-colons.



1. Introduction

The introduction of the paper should start with an explanation of why a particular research work was conducted and end with a statement/conclusion of the research approach. Authors must ensure that non-technical readers are able to understand the introduction, including the technical goals and objectives, any technical issues faced, and applications in the real world. It would be beneficial for readers if authors provide a clear, one-sentence purpose statement of the research. It would be advisable to keep the length of the introduction to about 1/2 page (1–2 paragraphs).

2. Materials and methods

In this section, authors are required to provide a detailed account of the procedure that was followed when conducting the research described in the report. This will help readers obtain a clear understanding of the research and also allow them to replicate the study in the future. Authors should ensure that every method used is described and citations for procedures that have been described previously are included. A discussion in this section regarding the methods or results of any kind should be avoided.

Authors of a research manuscript reporting large datasets that are deposited in a publicly available database should specify where the data are deposited and provide the relevant accession numbers. If the accession numbers have not yet been obtained at the time of submission, please state that they will be provided during review. They must be provided prior to publication.

For interventional studies involving animals or humans, and other studies that require ethical approval, authors must submit the name of the authority that provided approval and the corresponding ethical approval code (see Human & Animal Research Policy).

3. Results and discussion

This section may be divided by subheadings. It should provide a concise and precise description of experimental results, result interpretation, as well as the experimental conclusion that can be drawn.


Author contributions

For research articles with more than one author (not mandatory for other article types), a short paragraph specifying their individual contributions must be provided.



The acknowledgments section is not required. This is the section where authors can credit others for their guidance or help in writing the manuscript.


Conflict of interest

All authors are required to declare all activities that have the potential to be deemed as a source of competing interest relating to their submitted manuscript (see Conflict of Interest Policy). If there are no conflicts of interest, please state so, for example, “The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest”.


Figures, tables, and equations

All figures and tables should be cited in the main text as Figure 1Table 1, etc. Figures should be center-aligned and placed as close as possible to the text they refer to. Photos, graphs, charts, or diagrams should be labeled as “Figure” (do not abbreviate) and assigned a number consecutively (e.g., Figure 1). The figure caption should appear underneath the figure and should be center-aligned with no additional blank line.


For example:



                                                             Figure 1. Figure lable.

In the case where the figure caption needs to be extended over to the second line, it should be left-aligned. 


In the case where a table needs to be extended to the following page, the continuation of the table should be preceded by a caption, e.g., “Table 1. (Continued)”. Table footnotes should be placed below the table.

For example:

                                                                 Table 1. Table label.



When including symbols and equations in the text, the variable name and style must be consistent with those in the equations. Equations should be centered and numbered at the right margin of the same line, and the equation number should be enclosed with a parenthesis (). 
For example:


Supplementary materials that are excluded in the main body of the paper may be included in an appendix. These include derivations of equations and details of algorithms. An appendix should be used only when advanced technical details are essential to the paper. An appendix should be placed at the end of the paper after the References section and it should start on a new page.



References must be numbered in order of appearance in the text (including citations in tables and legends) and listed individually at the end of the manuscript. We recommend preparing references with a bibliography software package, such as EndNote, Reference Manager, or Zotero, to avoid typing mistakes and duplicated references. The digital object identifier (DOI) for all references should be included if available.

In-text citations

For in-text citations, the reference numbers should be placed in a square bracket [ ] and placed before the punctuation, for example, [1], [1–3], or [1,3]. For in-text citations with pagination, both parentheses and square brackets should be used to indicate the reference number and the page numbers, respectively, for example, [4] (p. 105) or [5] (pp. 12–18).

A text line must not start with a reference number. It is advised to include the author’s last name in front of the reference number instead. For example, for one author, “[1] proposes a systematic” should be replaced with “Liu [1] proposes a systematic”; for two authors, “[5] found that…” should be replaced with “Qian and Zhao [5] found that…”; and for three or more authors, “[7] described…” should be replaced with “Li et al. [7] described…”.

Journal Article

Author 1 FM, Author 2 FM, Author 3 FM, et al. Article title. Journal Name. Year, Volume(Issue) (if available): Firstpage–Lastpage. doi (if available)

For example:

1. Li Z, Oskarsson M, Heyden A. Detailed 3D human body reconstruction from multi-view images combining voxel super-resolution and learned implicit representation. Applied Intelligence. 2022, 52(6): 6739–6759. doi: 10.1007/s10489-021-02783-8

Article in a language other than English

Author 1 FM, Author 2 FM, Author 3 FM, et al. English title of the article (language). Journal Name. Year, Volume(Issue) (if available): Firstpage–Lastpage. doi (if available)

For example:

1. Massone L, Borghi S, Palmarpuric localization of dermatitis herpetiformis (French). Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie 1987; 114(12): 1545–1547.


Book without editors

Author 1 FM, Author 2 FM. Chapter (optional). In: Title of the Book, Edition (if available). Publisher; Year. pp. Page range (optional).

For example:

1.  Desiraju GR, Steiner T. The Weak Hydrogen Bond in Structural Chemistry and Biology, 2nd ed. Oxford University Press; 1999. pp. 10–25.

Book with editors

Author 1 FM, Author 2 FM. Title of the contribution. In: Editor 1 FM, Editor 2 FM (editors). Title of the Book, Edition (if available). Publisher; Year. Volume (optional). pp. Page range (optional).

For example:

1. Rojko JL, Hardy WD Jr. Feline leukemia virus and other retroviruses. In: Sherding RG (editor). The Cat: Diseases and Clinical Management, 3rd ed. Churchill Livingstone; 1989. pp. 229–332.


Patent Owner 1, Patent Owner 2, Patent Owner 3. Title of Patent. Patent Number, Date (Day Month Year, the Application granted date).
For example:

1. Blanco EE, Meade JC, Richards WD. Surgical Stapling System. U.S. Patent 4,969,591. 13 November 1990.

Conference publication

Full citations of published abstracts (proceedings):

Author 1 FM, Author 2 FM, Author 3 FM, et al. Title of presentation. In: Proceedings of the Name of the Conference; Date of Conference (Day Month Year) (if available); Location of Conference (City, Country) (if available). Abstract Number (optional), Pagination (optional).

For example:

1. Chum O, Philbin J, Zisserman A. Near duplicate image detection: Min‐Hash and tf‐idf weighting. In: Proceedings of the 19th British Machine Vision Conference (BMVC 2008); 1–4 September 2008; Leeds, UK. pp. 812–815.
If the proceedings are published as a book with a separate title (i.e., not “Proceedings of the Name of the Conference (full name)” as the title):
Author 1 FM, Author 2 FM, Author 3 FM. Title of presentation. In: Editor 1 FM, Editor 2 FM (editors) (if available). Title of Collected Work, Proceedings of the Name of the Conference; Date of Conference (Day Month Year) (if available); Location of Conference (City, Country) (if available). Publisher; Year. Abstract Number (optional), Pagination (optional).
For example:
1. Beebe N. Digital forensic research: The good, the bad and the unaddressed. In: Advances in Digital Forensics V, Proceedings of the Fifth IFIP WG 11.9 International Conference on Digital Forensics; 26–28 January 2009; Orlando, FL, USA. Springer; 2009. Volume V. pp. 17–36.
Oral presentations without published material:

Author 1 FM, Author 2 FM, Author 3 FM. Title of presentation (if any). Presented at the Name of Conference; Date of Conference (Day Month Year) (if available); Location of Conference (City, Country) (if available); Paper number (if available).
For example:
1. Zhang Z, Chen H, Zhong J, et al. ZnO nanotip‐based QCM biosensors. Presented at the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and Exposition; 4–7 June 2006; Miami, FL, USA.

Author FM. Title of Thesis [Level of thesis]. Degree‐Granting University; Year.
For example:
1. Mäckel H. Capturing the Spectra of Silicon Solar Cells [PhD thesis]. The Australian National University; 2004.


Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  1. The submission has not been previously published, nor is it under the consideration of another journal (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  2. The submission file is in Microsoft Word format.
  3. Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  4. The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal.
  5. If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the Journal, the instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed.

Copyright Notice

The Author(s) warrant that permission to publish the article that has not been previously assigned elsewhere.

Author(s) shall retain the copyright of their work and grant the Journal/Publisher right for the first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under: 

OA - Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0). Under this license, author(s) will allow third parties to download, reuse, reprint, modify, distribute and/or copy the content under the condition that the authors are given credit. No permission is required from the authors or the publisher.

This broad license intends to facilitate free access, as well as the unrestricted use of original works of all types. This ensures that the published work is freely and openly available in perpetuity.


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