Design and development of sulfonated tetrafunctional epoxy nanocomposites for advanced engineering applications

Duraibabu Dhanapal, Alagar Muthukaruppan, Ananda Kumar Srinivasan


Attempts were made in the present study to design and develop skeletally modified ether linked tetraglycidyl epoxy resin (TGBAPSB), which is subsequently reinforced with different weight percentages of amine functionalized mullite fiber (F-MF). The F-MF was synthesized by reacting mullite fiber with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) as coupling agent and the F-MF structure was confirmed by FT-IR. TGBAPSB reinforced with F-MF formulation was cured with 4,4’-diamino diphenyl methane (DDM) to obtain nanocomposite. The surface morphology of TGBAPSB-F-MF epoxy nanocomposites was investigated by XRD, SEM and AFM studies. From the study, it follows that these nanocomposite materials offer enhancement in mechanical, thermal, thermo-mechanical, dielectric properties compared to neat (TGBAPSB) epoxy matrix. Hence we recommend these nanocomposites for a possible use in advanced engineering applications that require both toughness and stiffness.


Surface modification; Nanocomposites; Thermo-mechanical properties; Dielectrical properties; Phase separation

Full Text:



Ana M, Amaro, Luís Bernardo, et al. The influence of curing agents in the impact properties of epoxy resin nanocomposites. Composite Structures 2017;174(15): 26-32.

Ana AmaroM, LuísBernardo, DeesyG, et al. Effect of irregular shaped nanoalumina on the enhancement of mechanical properties of epoxy resin nanocomposites using DDM as hardener. Composites Part B: Engineering 2016; 84: 17-24.

Roya Moosaei, Mehdi Sharif, Amir Ramezannezhad. Enhancement of tensile, electrical and thermal properties of epoxy nanocomposites through chemical hybridization of polypyrrole and graphene oxide. Polymer Testing 2017; 60: 173-186.

DuraibabuD, GaneshbabuT, Manjumeena R, et al. Unique coating formulation for corrosion and microbial prevention of mild steel. Progress in Organic Coatings 2014; 77(3): 657-664.

Jaemin Cha, Sunghwan Jin, Jae Hun Shim, et al. Functionalization of carbon nanotubes for fabrication of CNT/epoxy nanocomposites. Materials and Design 2016; 95(5): 1-8.

PaulDR, RobesonLM. Polymer nanotechnology: Nanocomposites. Polymer 2008; 49(15): 3187-3204.

ZhaoS, SongZ, CuiJ, et al. Improving dispersion and integration of single‐walled carbon nanotubes in epoxy composites by using a reactive noncovalent dispersant. J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem 2012; 50(21): 4548-4556.

GanesanY, PengC, LuY, et al. Interface Toughness of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Epoxy Composites. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2011; 3(2): 129–134.

Sun, YY, ZhangZQ, WongCP. Influence of interphase and moisture on the dielectric spectroscopy of epoxy/silica composites. Polymer 2005; 46(7): 2297-2305.

Pinto D, et al. Mechanical properties of epoxy nanocomposites using aluminaas reinforcement – A review. Journal of Nano Research 2015;30: 9–38.

Lim SH, Zeng KY, He CB. Morphology, tensile and fracture characteristics of epoxy-alumina nanocomposites. Mater Sci Eng, A 2010; 527(21–22): 5670–5676..

Jing Zhang, Xue Dong, Feng Hou, et al. Effect of mullitefiber content on the microstructure and properties of porous mullitefiber/silica composite. Ceramics International 2016; 42(5): 6520–6524.

SchneiderH, FischerRX, Schreuer J. Mullite: Crystal structure and related properties. J. Am. Ceram. Soc 2015; 98(10): 2948–2967.

PereiraD, BiasibettiG, CameriniR, et al. Sintering of mullite by different methods. Mater. Manuf. Process 2014; 29: 391–396.

Mohammad Ali ZadehM, Keyanpour-RadM, Ebadzadeh T. Synthesis of mullite nanofibres by electrospinning of solutions containing different proportions of polyvinyl butyral. Ceram. Int. 2013; 39(8): 9079–9084.

Zhao B, Li Z, ZhuY. Effect of polycrystalline mullitefibers on the properties of vitrified bond and vitrified CBN composites. Ceram. Int. 2013; 39(3): 2863–2868.

ZhangY,DingY, GaoJ, et al. Mullitefibres prepared by sol–gel method using polyvinyl butyral. J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 2009; 29(6): 1101–1107.

Ciprari D, Jacob K, Tannenbaum R. Characterization of polymer nanocomposite interphase and its impact on mechanical properties. Macromolecules 2006; 39(19):6565-6573.

Hanemann T, Szabo DV. Polymer-nanoparticle composites: from synthesis tomodern applications. Materials 2010;3(6):3468-3517.

Duraibabu D, AlagarM, Ananda KumarS. Studies on mechanical, thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of functionalized nanoalumina reinforced sulphone ether linked tetraglycidyl epoxy nanocomposites. RSC Adv 2014; 4: 40132–40140.

Chang song K. Preparation of mullite fibres by the sol–gel method. J Sol-Gel Sci Tech 1998;13 (1-3): 1017–1021.

Qiang Ma, Jing Luo, Yuanxun Chen, et al. Reactive copolymer functionalized graphene sheet for enhanced mechanical and thermal properties of epoxy composites. Journal of Polymer Science, Part a: Polymer Chemistry2015; 53(1): 2776–2785.

Roya Moosaei, Mehdi Sharif, Amir Ramezannezhad. Enhancement of tensile, electrical and thermal properties of epoxy nanocomposites through chemical hybridization of polypyrrole and graphene oxide. Polymer Testing 2017; (60): 173-186.

DuraibabuD, RajagopalD, Ananda KumarS. A first MMT reinforced nanocomposite functionalized with ether linkage derived from tetraglycidyl/diglycidyl epoxy building block. Progress in Organic Coatings 2017; 104: 135–140.

Arun Kumar, GhoshPK, YadavKL, et al. Thermo-mechanical and anti-corrosive properties of MWCNT/epoxy nanocomposite fabricated by innovative dispersion technique. Composites Part B 2017; 113: 291-299.

KanimozhiK, Prabunathan P, SelvarajV, et al. Thermal and mechanical properties of functionalized mullite reinforced unsaturated polyester composites. Polymer Composites 2014; 35(9): 1663-1670.

VengatesanM R, SinghS, Pillai V V, et al. Crystallization, mechanical, and fracture behavior of mullite fiber-reinforced polypropylene nanocomposites.J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2016; 133(30):

Qian Guo, Pengli Zhu, Gang Li, et al. Study on the effects of interfacial interaction on the rheological and thermal performance of silica nanoparticles reinforced epoxy nanocomposites. Composites Part B 2017; 116: 388-39.

Hongbo Gu, Sruthi Tadakamall, Xi Zhang, et al. Epoxy resin nanosuspensions and reinforced nanocomposites from polyaniline stabilized multi-walled carbon nanotubes. J Mater. Chem C 2013;1: 729-743.

Chandramohan A, Alagar M. Synthesis and characterization of 1, 1-bis (3-methyl-4-epoxyphenyl) cyclohexane-toughened DGEBA and TGDDM organo clay hybrid nanocomposites. High Perform Polym 2011; 23(3):197–211.

Subhra Gantayat, Dibyaranjan Rout, SwainS K. Mechanical properties of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotube/epoxy nanocomposites. Materials Today: Proceedings 2017; 4(2): 4061–4064.

DuraibabuD, AlagarM, Ananda KumarS. Development and characterization of tetraglycidyl epoxy reinforced inorganic hybrid nanomaterials for high performance applications. High. Perform. Polym 2015; 28(7): 773-783.

ParidaAK, RoutaraBC, BhuyanRK. Surface roughness model and parametric optimization in machining of GFRP composite: Taguchi and Response surface methodology approach Materials Today: Proceedings 2015; 2(4-5): 3065-3074.

Duraibabu D, Ananda Kumar S, Neelakandan R. Role of POSS as Coupling Agent for DGEBA/GF Reinforced Nanocomposites. Silicon 2018; 10(2): 537–546.

KanimozhiK, DevarajuS, VengatesanMR, et al. Studies on synthesis and characterization of surface-modified mullite fibre-reinforced epoxy nanocomposites. High Performance Polymers 2013; 25(6): 658-667.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License

This site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.