Preparation and application of carbon-based hollow structured nanomaterials

Xingmiao Zhang, Wei Zhang, Wei Li

Article ID: 1700
Vol 5, Issue 2, 2022

VIEWS - 273 (Abstract) 166 (PDF)


Carbon-based hollow structured nanomaterials have become one of the hot areas for research and development of hollow structured nanomaterials due to their unique structure, excellent physicochemical properties and promising applications. The design and synthesis of novel carbon-based hollow structured nanomaterials are of great scientific significance and wide application value. The recent research on the synthesis, structure and functionalization of carbon-based hollow structured nanomaterials and their related applications are reviewed. The basic synthetic strategies of carbon-based hollow structure nanomaterials are briefly introduced, and the structural design, material functionalization and main applications of carbon-based hollow structure nanomaterials are described in detail. Finally, the current challenges and opportunities in the synthesis and application of carbon-based hollow structured nanomaterials are discussed.


Hollow Structure; Carbon-Based Nanomaterials; Preparation Methods

Full Text:



1. Liu J, Wickramaratne NP, Qiao S, et al. Molecular-based design and emerging applications of nanoporous carbon spheres. Nature Materials 2015; 14(8): 763–774.

2. Wang G, Hilgert J, Richter FH, et al. Platinum-cobalt bimetallic nanoparticles in hollow carbon nanospheres for hydrogenolysis of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. Nature Materials 2014; 13(3): 293–300.

3. Wang X, Feng J, Bai Y, et al. Synthesis, properties, and applications of hollow micro-/nanostructures. Chemical Reviews 2016; 116(18): 10983–11060.

4. Xiao M, Wang Z, Lyu M, et al. Hollow nanostructures for photocatalysis: Advantages and challenges. Advanced Materials 2019; 31(38): 1801369.

5. Wang J, Cui Y, Wang D. Design of hollow nanostructures for energy storage, conversion and production. Advanced Materials 2019; 31(38): 1801993.

6. Feng J, Yin Y. Self-templating approaches to hollow nanostructures. Advanced Materials 2019; 31(38): 1802349.

7. Mao D, Wan J, Wang J, et al. Sequential templating approach: A ground breaking strategy to create hollow multishelled structures. Advanced Materials 2019; 31(38): 1802874.

8. Li H, Yu S. Recent advances on controlled synthesis and engineering of hollow alloyed nanotubes for electrocatalysis. Advanced Materials 2019; 31(38): 1803503.

9. Fu A, Wang C, Pei F, et al. Recent advances in hollow porous carbon materials for lithium-sulfur batteries. Small 2019; 15(10): 1804786.

10. Tian H, Liang J, Liu J. Nanoengineering carbon spheres as nanoreactors for sustainable energy applications. Advanced Materials 2019; 31(50): 1903886.

11. Shen Y, Jin J, Chen N, et al. Controllable synthesis of porous tubular carbon by a Ag+-ligand-assisted Stöber-silica/carbon assembly process. Nanoscale 2021; 13(4): 2534–2541.

12. Liu J, Yang T, Wang D, et al. A facile soft-template synthesis of mesoporous polymeric and carbonaceous nanospheres. Nature Communications 2013; 4(1): 1–7.

13. White RJ, Tauer K, Antonietti M, et al. Functional hollow carbon nanospheres by latex templating. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2010; 132(49): 17360–17363.

14. Xu F, Tang Z, Huang S, et al. Facile synthesis of ultrahigh-surface-area hollow carbon nanospheres for enhanced adsorption and energy storage. Nature Communications 2015; 6(1): 7221.

15. Chen T, Zhang Z, Cheng B, et al. Self-templated formation of interlaced carbon nanotubes threaded hollow Co3S4 nanoboxes for high-rate and heat-resistant lithium-sulfur batteries. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2017; 139(36): 12710–12715.

16. Yao L, Gu Q, Yu X. Three-dimensional MOFs@ MXene Aerogel composite derived MXene threaded hollow carbon confined CoS nanoparticles toward advanced alkali-ion batteries. ACS Nano 2021; 15(2): 3228–3240.

17. Schneider A, Suchomski C, Sommer H, et al. Free-standing and binder-free highly N-doped carbon/sulfur cathodes with tailorable loading for high-areal-capacity lithium-sulfur batteries. Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2015; 3(41): 20482–20486.

18. Chen X, Kierzek K, Jiang Z, et al. Synthesis, growth mechanism, and electrochemical properties of hollow mesoporous carbon spheres with controlled diameter. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 2011; 115(36): 17717–17724.

19. Liu J, Qiao S, Liu H, et al. Extension of the Stöber method to the preparation of monodisperse resorcinol-formaldehyde resin polymer and carbon spheres. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2011; 50(26): 5947–5951.

20. Ai K, Liu Y, Ruan C, et al. Sp2 C-dominant N-doped carbon sub-micrometer spheres with a tunable size: A versatile platform for highly efficient oxygen-reduction catalysts. Advanced Materials 2013; 25(7): 998–1003.

21. Lu A, Sun T, Li W, et al. Synthesis of discrete and dispersible hollow carbon nanospheres with high uniformity by using confined nanospace pyrolysis. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2011; 50(49): 11765–11768.

22. Noonan O, Zhang H, Song H, et al. In situ Stöber templating: Facile synthesis of hollow mesoporous carbon spheres from silica-polymer composites for ultra-high level in-cavity adsorption. Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2016; 4(23): 9063–9071.

23. Li N, Zhang Q, Liu J, et al. Sol-gel coating of inorganic nanostructures with resorcinol-formaldehyde resin. Chemical Communications 2013; 49(45): 5135–5137.

24. Fang X, Liu S, Zang J, et al. Precisely controlled resorcinol-formaldehyde resin coating for fabricating core-shell, hollow, and yolk-shell carbon nanostructures. Nanoscale 2013; 5(15): 6908–6916.

25. Guan B, Wang X, Xiao Y, et al. A versatile cooperative template-directed coating method to construct uniform microporous carbon shells for multifunctional core-shell nanocomposites. Nanoscale 2013; 5(6): 2469–2475.

26. Fang X, Zang J, Wang X, et al. A multiple coating route to hollow carbon spheres with foam-like shells and their applications in supercapacitor and confined catalysis. Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2014; 2(17): 6191–6197.

27. Qiao Z, Guo B, Binder AJ, et al. Controlled synthesis of mesoporous carbon nanostructures via a “silica-assisted” strategy. Nano Letters 2013; 13(1): 207–212.

28. Wang S, Li W, Hao G, et al. Temperature-programmed precise control over the sizes of carbon nanospheres based on benzoxazine chemistry. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2011; 133(39): 15304–15307.

29. Pei F, An T, Zang J, et al. From hollow carbon spheres to N-doped hollow porous carbon bowls: Rational design of hollow carbon host for Li-S batteries. Advanced Energy Materials 2016; 6(8): 1502539.

30. Bin D, Chi Z, Li Y, et al. Controlling the compositional chemistry in single nanoparticles for functional hollow carbon nanospheres. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2017; 139(38): 13492–13498.

31. Liu C, Wang J, Li J, et al. Controllable synthesis of functional hollow carbon nanostructures with dopamine as precursor for supercapacitors. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2015; 7(33): 18609–18617.

32. Liu J, Qiao S, Chen J, et al. Yolk/shell nanoparticles: New platforms for nanoreactors, drug delivery and lithium-ion batteries. Chemical Communications 2011; 47(47): 12578–12591.

33. Liu R, Mahurin SM, Li C, et al. Dopamine as a carbon source: The controlled synthesis of hollow carbon spheres and yolk-structured carbon nanocomposites. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2011; 50(30): 6799–6802.

34. Han Y, Wang Y, Chen W, et al. Hollow N-doped carbon spheres with isolated cobalt single atomic sites: Superior electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2017; 139(48): 17269–17272.

35. Wan X, Wu H, Guan B, et al. Confining sub-nanometer Pt clusters in hollow mesoporous carbon spheres for boosting hydrogen evolution activity. Advanced Materials 2020; 32(7): 1901349.

36. Zhang H, Noonan O, Huang X, et al. Surfactant-free assembly of mesoporous carbon hollow spheres with large tunable pore sizes. ACS Nano 2016; 10(4): 4579–4586.

37. Guan B, Yu L, Lou X. Chemically assisted formation of monolayer colloidosomes on functional particles. Advanced Materials 2016; 28(43): 9596–9601.

38. Jiao Y, Zheng Y, Jaroniec M, et al. Design of electrocatalysts for oxygen- and hydrogen-involving energy conversion reactions. Chemical Society Reviews 2015; 44(8): 2060–2086.

39. Wickramaratne NP, Xu J, Wang M, et al. Nitrogen enriched porous carbon spheres: Attractive materials for supercapacitor electrodes and CO2 adsorption. Chemistry of Materials 2014; 26(9): 2820–2828.

40. Su F, Poh CK, Chen J, et al. Nitrogen-containing microporous carbon nanospheres with improved capacitive properties. Energy & Environmental Science 2011; 4(3): 717–724.

41. Pan Y, Lin R, Chen Y, et al. Design of single-atom Co-N5 catalytic site: A robust electrocatalyst for CO2 reduction with nearly 100% CO selectivity and remarkable stability. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2018; 140(12): 4218–4221.

42. Liu R, Yeh YW, Tam VH, et al. One-pot Stöber route yields template for Ag@ carbon yolk-shell nanostructures. Chemical Communications 2014; 50(65): 9056–9059.

43. Galeano C, Meier JC, Soorholtz M, et al. Nitrogen-doped hollow carbon spheres as a support for platinum-based electrocatalysts. ACS Catalysis 2014; 4(11): 3856–3868.

44. Galeano C, Meier JC, Peinecke V, et al. Toward highly stable electrocatalysts via nanoparticle pore confinement. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2012; 134(50): 20457–20465.

45. Tang J, Liu J, Torad NL, et al. Tailored design of functional nanoporous carbon materials toward fuel cell applications. Nano Today 2014; 9(3): 305–323.

46. Wang L, Zhang J, Yang S, et al. Sulfonated hollow sphere carbon as an efficient catalyst for acetalisation of glycerol. Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2013; 1(33): 9422–9426.

47. Song D, An S, Lu B, et al. Arylsulfonic acid functionalized hollow mesoporous carbon spheres for efficient conversion of levulinic acid or furfuryl alcohol to ethyl levulinate. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2015; 179: 445–457.

48. Boukamp BA, Lesh GC, Huggins RA. All-solid lithium electrodes with mixed-conductor matrix. Journal of the Electrochemical Society 1981; 128(4): 725.

49. Chen S, Shen L, van Aken PA, et al. Dual-functionalized double carbon shells coated silicon nanoparticles for high performance lithium-ion batteries. Advanced Materials 2017; 29(21): 1605650.

50. Zhang W, Hu J, Guo Y, et al. Tin-nanoparticles encapsulated in elastic hollow carbon spheres for high-performance anode material in lithium-Ion batteries. Advanced Materials 2008; 20(6): 1160–1165.

51. Yang T, Liang J, Sultana I, et al. Formation of hollow MoS2/carbon microspheres for high capacity and high rate reversible alkali-ion storage. Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2018; 6(18): 8280–8288.

52. An W, Fu J, Su J, et al. Mesoporous hollow nanospheres consisting of carbon coated silica nanoparticles for robust lithium-ion battery anodes. Journal of Power Sources 2017; 345: 227–236.

53. Liang J, Sun Z, Li F, et al. Carbon materials for Li-S batteries: Functional evolution and performance improvement. Energy Storage Materials 2016; 2: 76–106.

54. Hong X, Mei J, Wen L, et al. Nonlithium metal-sulfur batteries: Steps toward a leap. Advanced Materials 2019; 31(5): 1802822.

55. Li L, Chen L, Mukherjee S, et al. Phosphorene as a polysulfide immobilizer and catalyst in high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries. Advanced Materials 2017; 29(2): 1602734.

56. Tao Y, Wei Y, Liu Y, et al. Kinetically-enhanced polysulfide redox reactions by Nb2O5 nanocrystals for high-rate lithium-sulfur battery. Energy & Environmental Science 2016; 9(10): 3230–3239.

57. Hu L, Dai C, Liu H, et al. Double-shelled NiO-NiCo2O4 heterostructure@ carbon hollow nanocages as an efficient sulfur host for advanced lithium-sulfur batteries. Advanced Energy Materials 2018; 8(23): 1800709.

58. Ye C, Zhang L, Guo C, et al. A 3D hybrid of chemically coupled nickel sulfide and hollow carbon spheres for high performance lithium-sulfur batteries. Advanced Functional Materials 2017; 27(33): 1702524.

59. Wu S, Wang Y, Na S, et al. Porous hollow carbon nanospheres embedded with well-dispersed cobalt monoxide nanocrystals as effective polysulfide reservoirs for high-rate and long-cycle lithium-sulfur batteries. Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2017; 5(33): 17352–17359.

60. Chen T, Ma L, Cheng B, et al. Metallic and polar Co9S8 inlaid carbon hollow nanopolyhedra as efficient polysulfide mediator for lithium-sulfur batteries. Nano Energy 2017; 38: 239–248.

61. Li Z, Zhang J, Guan B, et al. A sulfur host based on titanium monoxide@ carbon hollow spheres for advanced lithium-sulfur batteries. Nature Communications 2016; 7(1): 13065.

62. Li Z, Zhang J, Lou X. Hollow carbon nanofibers filled with MnO2 nanosheets as efficient sulfur hosts for lithium-sulfur batteries. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2015; 54(44): 12886–12890.

63. Liang Z, Ma Y, Song J, et al. Study on proparation of B/P/N/O Co-doped carbon nanofibers and its pwperties for super capacitors. Journal of Enginnering of Heilongjiang University 2020; 11(2): 38–43.

64. He J, Luo L, Chen Y, et al. Yolk-shelled C@ Fe3O4 nanoboxes as efficient sulfur hosts for high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries. Advanced Materials 2017; 29(34): 1702707.

65. Ye H, Xin S, Yin Y, et al. Advanced porous carbon materials for high-efficient lithium metal anodes. Advanced Energy Materials 2017; 7(23): 1700530.

66. Wang L, Zhou Z, Yan X, et al. Engineering of lithium-metal anodes towards a safe and stable battery. Energy Storage Materials 2018; 14: 22–48.

67. Yan K, Lu Z, Lee HW, et al. Selective deposition and stable encapsulation of lithium through heterogeneous seeded growth. Nature Energy 2016; 1(3): 16010.

68. Yang T, Liu J, Zhou R, et al. N-doped mesoporous carbon spheres as the oxygen reduction reaction catalysts. Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2014; 2(42): 18139–18146.

69. Prieto G, Tuüysuüz H, Duyckaerts N, et al. Hollow nano- and microstructures as catalysts. Chemical Reviews 2016; 116(22): 14056–14119.

70. Wang G, Chen K, Engelhardt J, et al. Scalable one-pot synthesis of yolk-shell carbon nanospheres with yolk-supported Pd nanoparticles for size-selective catalysis. Chemistry of Materials 2018; 30(8): 2483–2487.

71. Tian H, Huang F, Zhu Y, et al. The Development of yolk-shell-structured Pd&ZnO@ carbon submicroreactors with high selectivity and stability. Advanced Functional Materials 2018; 28(32): 1801737.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License

This site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.