Chemical Induced Liver Injury: Types, Mechanisms and Biomarkers

Richa Sachan 1, Rajbala Singh 2


Liver is a primary organ involved in biotransformation of foods and drugs. Liver diseases are a major worldwide problem; Hepatic disorders are mainly caused by toxic chemicals, e.g. - alcohol, carbon tetra chloride, anticancer agent, analgesic, anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-tuberculosis agent and heavy metals. Various risk factors for liver damage include age, gender, alcoholism, nutrition and genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 have also been considered. The present review enumerate various hepatic diseases, risk factors and chemicals induced hepatic injury via different mechanical pathway  as well as numerous biochemical changes viz. serum biomarkers, proteomics biomarkers, genomic biomarkers, metabolic biomarkers and micro RNA. This review could be immensely useful for researchers especially for pharmacologists, toxicologist working on hepatotoxicity and drug research organization.


liver; biotransformation; risk factors

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