Effect of Zn2+ Concentration on the Zinc Oxide Properties Prepared by Electrochemical Deposition

A. Henni, A. Karar, A. Merrouche, L. Telli

Article ID: 641
Vol 2, Issue 1, 2019

VIEWS - 401 (Abstract) 132 (PDF)


In this work, ZnO nanostructures are electrodeposited on ITO conducting substrate prepared from chloride baths. The influence of concentration of Zn2+ on the electrochemical characteristics has been studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA) techniques. The Mott–Schottky measurements demonstrate an n-type semiconductor character for all samples with a carrier density varying between 1.47 × 1,018 cm−3 and 3.14 × 1,018 cm−3. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) show arrays of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs) with good homogeneity. X-ray diffraction spectra demonstrate that films crystalline with the Würtzite structure with preferential (002) crystallographic orientation having c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. The high optical properties of the ZnO NRs with a low density of deep defects was checked by UV-Vis transmittance analyses, the band gap energy of films varies between 3.3 and 3.4 eV with transparency around 80-90%.


Electrochemical Growth; Zno; Nanorods; Thin Films; Zinc Concentration

Full Text:



1. Sepulveda-Guzman S, Reeja-Jayan B, de la Rosa E, et al. Synthesis of assembled ZnO structures by precipitation method in aqueous media. Materials Chemistry and Physics 2009; 115(1): 172–178.

2. Lupan O, Guérin VM, Tiginyanu IM, et al. Well-aligned arrays of vertically oriented ZnO nanowires electrodeposited on ITO-coated glass and their integration in dye sensitized solar cells. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry 2010; 211(1): 65–73.

3. O’Brien S, Nolan MG, Çopuroglu M, et al. Zinc oxide thin films: Characterization and potential applications. Thin Solid Films 2010; 518(16): 4515–4519.

4. Yang Y, Guo W, Pradel KC, et al. Pyroelectric nanogenerators for harvesting thermoelectric energy. Nano Letters 2012; 12(6): 2833–2838.

5. Pradhan D, Leung KT. Controlled growth of two-dimensional and one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures on indium tin oxide coated glass by direct electrodeposition. Langmuir 2008; 24(17): 9707–9716.

6. Chu D, Hamada T, Kato K, et al. Growth and electrical properties of ZnO films prepared by chemical bath deposition method. Physica Status Solidi (a) 2009; 206(4): 718–723.

7. Chang YN, Zhang M, Xia L, et al. The toxic effects and mechanisms of CuO and ZnO nanoparticles. Materials 2012; 5(12): 2850–2871.

8. Luo L, Zhang Y, Mao SS, et al. Fabrication and characterization of ZnO nanowires based UV photodiodes. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 2006; 127(2): 201–206.

9. Minami T, Yamamoto T, Miyata T. Highly transparent and conductive rare earth-doped ZnO thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering. Thin Solid Films 2000; 366(1–2): 63–68.

10. Ateav BM, Bagamadova AM, Mamedov VV, et al. Thermally stable, highly conductive, and transparent ZnO layers prepared in situ by chemical vapor deposition. Materials Science and Engineering: B 1999; 65(3): 159–163.

11. Sun XW, Kwok HSK. Optical properties of epitaxially grown zinc oxide films on sapphire by pulsed laser deposition. Journal of Applied Physics 1999; 86(1): 408–411.

12. El Hichou A, Addou M, Ebothé J, et al. Influence of deposition temperature (Ts), air flow rate (f) and precursors on cathodoluminescence properties of ZnO thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis. Journal of luminescence 2005; 113(3–4): 183–190.

13. Srivatsa KMK, Chhikara D, Kumar MS. Synthesis of aligned ZnO nanorod array on silicon and sapphire substrates by thermal evaporation technique. Journal of Materials Science & Technology 2011; 27(8): 701–706.

14. Henni A, Merrouche A, Telli L, et al. Effect of H2O2 concentration on electrochemical growth and properties of vertically oriented ZnO nanorods electrodeposited from chloride solutions. Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing 2015; 40: 585–590.

15. Henni A, Merrouche A, Telli L, et al. Optical, structural, and photoelectrochemical properties of nanostructured ln-doped ZnO via electrodepositing method. Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry 2016; 20(8): 2135–2142.

16. Henni A, Merrouche A, Telli L, et al. Studies on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO nanorods prepared by electrochemical deposition. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 2016; 763: 149–154.

17. Khelladi MR, Mentar L, Beniaiche A, et al. A study on electrodeposited zinc oxide nanostructures. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics 2013; 24(1): 153–159.

18. Izaki M, Omi T. Transparent zinc oxide films prepared by electrochemical reaction. Applied Physics Letters 1996; 68(17): 2439–2440.

19. Goux A, Pauporte T, Chivot J, et al. Temperature effects on ZnO electrodeposition. Electrochimica Acta 2005; 50(11): 2239–2248.

20. Singh T, Pandya DK, Singh R. Effect of supporting electrolytes on the growth and optical properties of electrochemically deposited ZnO nanorods. Optical Materials 2013; 35(7): 1493–1497.

21. Izaki M, Omi T. Electrolyte optimization for cathodic growth of zinc oxide films. Journal of the Electrochemical Society 1996; 143(3): L53.

22. Gu ZH, Fahidy TZ. Electrochemical deposition of ZnO thin films on Tin‐Coated glasses. Journal of the Electrochemical Society 1999; 146(1): 156.

23. Ramirez D, Silva D, Gomez H, et al. Electrodeposition of ZnO thin films by using molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide as oxygen precursors: Structural and optical properties. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 2007; 91(15–16): 1458–1461.

24. Pauporte T, Lincot D. Hydrogen peroxide oxygen precursor for zinc oxide electrodeposition II—Mechanistic aspects. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 2001; 517(1–2): 54–62.

25. Qi L, Yu H, Lei Z, et al. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on ZnO nanowire array/TiO2 nanoparticle composite photoelectrodes with controllable nanowire aspect ratio. Applied Physics A 2013; 111(1): 279–284.

26. Kao MC, Chen HZ, Young SL. Effects of preannealing temperature of ZnO thin films on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells. Applied Physics A 2010; 98(3): 595–599.

27. Morrison SR. Electrochemistry at semiconductor and oxidized metal electrodes. New York: Plenum Press; 1980. p. 127.

28. Pradhan D, Mohapatra SK, Tymen S, et al. Morphology-controlled ZnO nanomaterials for enhanced photoelectrochemical performance. Materials Express 2011; 1(1): 59–67.

29. Tauc J, Grigorovici R, Vancu A. Optical properties and electronic structure of amorphous germanium. Physica Status Solidi (b) 1966; 15(2): 627–637.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24294/ace.v2i1.641


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.