Recapitulation on the effect of cross-cultural awareness and self-efficacy in education

Rulin Ma, M. S. H. B. Abdullah, M. M. J. Shuhaily

Article ID: 7196
Vol 8, Issue 6, 2024

VIEWS - 183 (Abstract) 158 (PDF)


This paper revisits the analysis on the effect of cross-cultural awareness and self-efficacy, which are both significant constructs in today’s globalized world. People are expected to have both a high level of self-efficacy and a strong sense of cross-cultural awareness due to the growing frequency of cross-cultural interactions. For fields like education, psychology, and cross-cultural communication, it can be very crucial to comprehend how cross-cultural awareness affects self-efficacy. 60 relevant articles were found after a thorough assessment of the literature on the subject using thematic analysis of the CNKI and Google Scholar databases. Ten major themes were found in the review: 1) the cultivation of cross-cultural awareness, 2) the current situation of students’ cross-cultural awareness, 3) the importance of cross-cultural awareness, 4) the relationship between self-efficacy and academic achievement, 5) the relationship between learning self-efficacy and influencing factors, 6) the relationship between cross-cultural awareness and self-efficacy, 7) the relationship between self-efficacy and cross-cultural adaptation, 8) cultural factors affecting learning self-efficacy, 9) the effect of social environment on individual self-efficacy, and 10) the relationship between cultural expectations and self-efficacy. The findings of this review demonstrate how crucial cross-cultural understanding is to the growth of self-efficacy. The design of educational and training programs aiming at boosting cross-cultural knowledge and self-efficacy will also be significantly impacted by this review.


cross-cultural awareness; self-efficacy; review; effect; education

Full Text:



Acheson, K., Nelson M., & Luna K. (2015). Measuring the impact of instruction in intercultural communication on secondary Spanish learners’ attitudes and motivation. Foreign Language Annals, 48(2), 203–217.

Anastasiou, D., & Michail, D. (2013). Exploring discourse between self-efficacy and writing performance among low-literate adult students. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 11(1), 53–87.

Ashton, P., & Webb, R. (1986). Making a difference: Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy and Students Achievement. New York: Longman.

Bai, B., Chao, G. C. N., & Wang, C. (2019). The relationship between social support, self-efficacy, and English language learning achievement in Hong Kong. TESOL Quarterly, 53(1), 208–221.

Bai, B., Wang, J., & Nie, Y. (2020). Self-efficacy, task values and growth mindset: what has the most predictive power for primary school students’ self-regulated learning in English writing and writing competence in an Asian Confucian cultural context? Cambridge Journal of Education, 51(1), 65–84.

Bai, D. W. (2015). The relevant research on cultural adaptation and self-efficacy of ethnic minority university students in Xinjiang. Contemporary Economic Information, (24).

Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191–215.

Celik, B. (2022). The Effect of Metacognitive Strategies on Self-Efficacy, Motivation and Academic Achievement of University Students. Canadian Journal of Educational and Social Studies, 2(4), 37–55.

Chang, X. M., & Zhao, Y. S. (2012). An action research on college English teaching to improve students’ cross-cultural awareness. Foreign Language World, (2), 27–34.

Chao, C. N. G., McInerney, D. M., & Bai, B. (2019). Self-efficacy and Self-concept as Predictors of Language Learning Achievements in an Asian Bilingual Context. Asia-Pacific Edu Res, 28, 139–147.

Chen, G. M., & Starosta, W. J. (1996). Intercultural communication competence: A synthesis. Communication Yearbook, 19(1), 353–384.

Chen, G. M., & Starosta, W. J. (1998). A review of the concept of intercultural awareness. Human Communication, (2), 27–54.

Chen, L. (2023). Cultivating Intercultural Awareness in Junior High School English Teaching. English Teacher, 23(8), 167–169.

Chen, M. (2019). Cultivation of students’ intercultural communicative awareness in English teaching. Journal of Chinese Education, (1), 93–94.

Choi, S., & Mao, X. (2021). Teacher autonomy for improving teacher self-efficacy in multicultural classrooms: A cross-national study of professional development in multicultural education. International Journal of Educational Research, 105, 10711.

Cruz, R. A., Manchanda, S., Firestone, A. R., & Rodl, J. E. (2020). An examination of teachers’ culturally responsive teaching self-efficacy. Teacher Education and Special Education, 43(3), 197–214.

Dilekli, Y., & Tezci, E. (2020). A cross-cultural study: Teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs for teaching thinking skills. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 35, 100624.

Erlandson, K. T. (2012). Teaching intercultural awareness with Star Wars: A new hope. Communication Teacher, 26(1), 17–21.

Gan, Z. D., Hu, G. W., Wang, W. J., et al. (2020). Feedback behaviour and preference in university academic English courses: associations with English language self-efficacy. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 46(5), 740–755.

Gao, Y. H. (2002). The development of intercultural communication competence: “leap” and “beyond”. Foreign Languages and Foreign Language Teaching, (10), 27–31.

Gao, Z., Xiang, P., Harrison, L., et al. (2008). A cross-cultural analysis of achievement goals and self-efficacy between American and Chinese college students in physical education. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 39, 1–18.

Ge, W. (2020). Improving English learning self-efficacy through traditional Chinese culture: Taking Xuanzang spirit as an example. Vocational Education and Training, (3).

Gutentag, T., Horenczyk, G., & Tatar, M. (2018). Teachers’ approaches toward cultural diversity predict diversity-related burnout and self-efficacy. Journal of Teacher Education, 69(4), 408–419.

Han, Y. (2016). A Cross-cultural Study on Academic Self-efficacy of Chinese and American English Majors. Journal of Zhejiang International Studies University, (3).

Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. Mc Graw-Hill.

Huang, C. Q. (2022). An empirical study on the impact of entrepreneurship policy environment, education environment, cultural environment on college students’ entrepreneurial intention—with self-efficacy as an intermediary variable. China-Arab Forum on Science and Technology, (10), 155–159.

Huang, W. H. (2011). Analysis of self -efficacy of ethnic minority college students from the perspective of cultural adaptation. China Adult Education, (11), 48–50.

Jackson, J. (2011). Cultivating cosmopolitan, intercultural citizenship through critical reflection and international, experiential learning. Language and Intercultural Communication, 11(2), 80–96.

Jackson. J. (2018). Intervening in the intercultural learning of L2 study abroad students: From research to practice. Language Teaching, 51(3), 365–382.

Jiang, P. P. (2019). On the development of intercultural communicative awareness and competence in English language teaching. Journal of Chinese Education, (1), 103–105.

Kang, S. M. (2010). Cultural awareness development in foreign language education. Educational Research, (8), 85–89.

Klassen, R. M., & Usher, E. L. (2010). Self-efficacy in educational settings: Recent research and emerging directions. In: Urdan, T. C., & Karabenick, S. A. (editors). The Decade Ahead: Theoretical Perspectives on Motivation and Achievement (Advances in Motivation and Achievement). Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Leeds. pp. 1–33.

Korzilius, H., Hooft, A., & Planken, B. (2007). A longitudinal study on intercultural awareness and foreign language acquisition in the Netherlands. Journal of Intercultural Communication, 7(3), 1–08.

Kustati, M., Deswila, N., Besral., & Zulfikar, T. (2023). Cross-Cultural Awareness: EFL Learners’ Barriers to Learning English. Journal of Innovation in Educational and Cultural Research, 4(1), 98–108.

Li, H. (2017). The influence of self-efficacy of English writing on the writing achievement of non-English major college students. Foreign Language Teaching Theory and Practice, (03), 57–63.

Li, H., & Liu, R. D. (2013). The relationship between foreign language writing anxiety and writing self-efficacy among college students and its prediction of writing performance. Foreign Language Research, 2, 48–54.

Li, W. (2005). Improving the cultural accomplishment of CUBA athletes through self-efficacy. Journal of Wuhan Institute of Physical Education, 39(10).

Liddicoat, A. J., Papademetre, L., Scarino, A., & Kohler, M. (2003). Report on intercultural language learning. Canberra, Australia: Department of Education, Science and Training.

Liu, C. Y. (2018). A study of college students’ learning fatigue from the perspective of cultural distance and self-efficacy. Journal of Hubei Radio & Television University, 38(1).

Liu, X. Y. (2023). Strategies for cultivating students’ intercultural awareness in primary English teaching. English on Campus, (27), 163–165.

Maddux, J. E. (1995). Self-Efficacy Theory. In: Maddux, J. E. (editor). Self-Efficacy, Adaptation, and Adjustment. The Plenum Series in Social/Clinical Psychology. Springer, Boston, MA.

Meng, M. Y. (2023). A study on cultivating high school students’ oral English expression ability based on intercultural awareness. Research Topic, (9), 9–11.

Midgley, C. (1990). Avoiding the Demonstration of Lack of Ability: An Under-explored Aspect of Goal Theory. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89.

Nelson, D. W., & Knight, A. E. (2010). The power of positive recollections: Reducing test anxiety and enhancing college student efficacy and performance. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 40(3), 732–745.

Nguyen, A. M. D., Jefferies, J., & Rojas, B. (2018). Short term, big impact? Changes in self-efficacy and cultural intelligence, and the adjustment of multicultural and monocultural students abroad. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 66, 119–129.

Pan, H. L., & Chen, Z. J. (2007). Analysis of English majors’ self-efficacy survey. Journal of Foreign Languages, 4, 128–130.

Peranginangin, S. A., Saragih, S., & Siagian, P. (2019). Development of Learning Materials through PBL with Karo Culture Context to Improve Students’ Problem Solving Ability and Self-Efficacy. International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 14(2), 265–274.

Sabti, A. A., Md Rashid, S., Nimehchisalem, V., & Darmi, R. (2019). The Impact of Writing Anxiety, Writing Achievement Motivation, and Writing Self-Efficacy on Writing Performance: A Correlational Study of Iraqi Tertiary EFL Learners. SAGE Open, 9(4).

Simamora, R. E., Saragih, S., & Hasratuddin. (2019). Improving Students’ Mathematical Problem Solving Ability and Self-Efficacy through Guided Discovery Learning in Local Culture Context. International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 14(1), 61–72.

Song, T. H. (2014). A comparative study of language learning concepts of FFL and FSL learners from a constructivist perspective. Chinese Foreign Languages, 4, 75–81.

Sun, Y. Z. (2017). Theory of humanistic English education. Foreign Language Teaching and Research, (6), 859–870.

Tang, F. G. (2003). Investigation on the relationship of self-efficacy, cultural factors, academic achievement and academic seeking for junior middle school students. China Journal of Mental Health, 17(2),118–119.

Tang, F., & Xu, J. F. (2011). Survey and research on self-efficacy of college English writing. Foreign Language, 6, 22–29.

Triandis, H. C. (1977). Theoretical framework for evaluation of cross-cultural training effectiveness. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, (1), 195–213.

Turner, J. E., & Li, B. (2021). Exploring effects of culture on students’ achievement motives and goals, self-efficacy, and willingness for public performances: The case of Chinese students’ speaking English in class. Learning and Individual Differences, 85, 101943.

Wang, S., & Liu, C. Y. (2016). Cross-cultural awareness development of foreign language learners. Journal of Foreign Languages, (5), 127–131.

Wang, T. J. (2010). An SEM study of the relationship between anxiety and efficacy and speaking and writing skills. Foreign Language and Foreign Language Teaching, 7, 27–30.

Wang, Y. L., Liang, J. C., & Tsai, C. C. (2018). Cross-cultural comparisons of university students’ science learning self-efficacy: Structural relationships among factors within science learning self-efficacy. International Journal of Science Education, 40(6), 579–594.

Wang, Y. M. (2019). Cultural intelligence, self-efficacy and cross-cultural adaptation of short-term Chinese students—Based on the research of international students in China. International Chinese Language Teaching and Research, 4(4).

Weninger, C., & Kiss, T. (2013). Culture in English as a foreign language textbooks: A semiotic approach. TESOL Quarterly, 47(4), 694–716.

Wu, W. C. V., Marek, M., & Chen, N. S. (2013). Assessing cultural awareness and linguistic competency of EFL learners in a CMC-based active learning context. System, 41(3), 515–528.

Wu, X. Y., & Zhang, Q. Z. (2009). The relationship between English majors’ self-efficacy, learning strategies, autonomous learning ability, and academic achievement. Foreign Language Education, 30(3), 43–62.

Wu, Y. H. (2013). The effect of peer assessment on self-efficacy: An empirical study of college English writing. Shandong Foreign Language Teaching, 6, 68–72.

Yada, A., Tolvanen, A., Malinen, O. P., et al. (2019). Teachers’ self-efficacy and the sources of efficacy: A cross-cultural investigation in Japan and Finland. Teaching and Teacher Education, 81, 13–24.

Yang, X. D. (1993). Junior high school students’ self-efficacy and its influence on learning goals. Psychological Development and Education, 3, 23–45.

Yassine, S. (2006). Culture Issues in FL teaching: Towards the fostering of intercultural awareness. Revue Annales du Patrimoine, 5, 51–61.

Zeng, Y. C., & Liu, Y. L. (2021). An empirical study on the relationship between campus culture, self-efficacy and craftsmanship spirit in higher vocational colleges. Journal of Shenzhen Polytechnic, 20(2).

Zhang, C. X. (1991). Modern psychology. Shanghai People’s Press.

Zhang, Q., & Wu, Y. (2017). Research on self-efficacy, social identity and cultural adaptation of mobile children. Journal of Jiaozuo Teachers College, 33(4).

Zhang, T. T. (2022). The empirical research on the relationship between self-efficacy, foreign language anxiety and academic burnout of college students. Journal of Southwest Jiaotong University (Social Sciences), 23(6).

Zhao, B. Q. (2022). Cultivation of cross-cultural awareness in Japanese teaching in higher vocational colleges. Contemporary Education and Teaching Research, 3(1), 20–22.

Zhao, H. Y. (2013). On the two-way growth of cross-cultural awareness in English education in China. Curriculum and Instruction, (11), 67–69.

Zhou, W. (2011). On the influence of cultural values on self-efficacy. Journal of Suzhou Education Institute, 14(5).

Zorlu, S., & Ünver, G. (2022). Predictive roles of self-regulatory learning strategies and self-efficacy beliefs on English language learning achievement. Turkish Journal of Education, 11(2), 74–92.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2024 Rulin Ma, M. S. H. B. Abdullah, M. M. J. Shuhaily

License URL:

This site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.