Convergence of EU countries according to economic complexity

Lenka Maličká

Article ID: 3123
Vol 8, Issue 3, 2024

VIEWS - 133 (Abstract) 64 (PDF)


The economic complexity approach presents a shift from quantitative to qualitative measures of economic performance, while economic complexity refers to the accumulation of know-how. Economic complexity is considered a predictor of economic growth and research evidences a positive relationship between economic complexity and economic growth. In the EU countries, economic convergence is observed. Hence the question of economic complexity convergence arises, too. The paper aims to analyze the convergence of 27 EU countries considering their economic complexity from 1999 to 2021 computing the beta convergence. Using the Barro-type regressions, the econometric estimations focus on four indices of economic complexity—the economic complexity index published by Harvard’s Growth Lab, and economic complexity indices on research, trade, and technology published by the Observatory of Economic Complexity. The absolute beta convergence is observed in the EU except for the economic complexity index referring to trade. When including the dummy referring to the location of EU countries in the West or East of the EU considering their wealth, the conditional beta convergence is observed except for the trade-economic complexity index, again. When altering the condition of location by the GDP per capita and other controls, the conditional beta convergence of economic complexity in the EU is observed when estimating both fixed-effect models and dynamic panel data models based on the system generalized method of moments (GMM) estimator.


economic complexity; economic complexity index; beta convergence; European Union

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