Interdependence and specialization in the global semiconductor industry

Alena Dorakh

Article ID: 2436
Vol 8, Issue 6, 2024

VIEWS - 603 (Abstract) 543 (PDF)


Interdependence between the United States (U.S.), European Union (EU) and Asia in the semiconductor industry, driven by specialization, can serve as a preventive measure against disruptions in the global semiconductor supply chain. Moreover, with rising geopolitical tensions, the cost-intensive nature of the semiconductor industry and a slowdown in demand, interdependence and partnership provide countries with opportunities and benefits. Specifically, by analyzing global trade patterns, developing the Interdependence Index within the semiconductor market, and applying the Grubel-Lloyd Index to the U.S., the EU, and Asian countries from 2011 to 2022, our findings reveal that interdependence enhances regional semiconductor supply chains, such as the establishment of semiconductor foundries in the U.S., Japan, and the EU; reduces dependence on a single supplier, such as the U.S. distancing from China; and increases market share in different semiconductor segments, as demonstrated by Taiwan in automobile chips. The evidence indicates that China heavily depends on foreign sources to meet its semiconductor demand, while Taiwan and South Korea specialize as foundry service providers with lower Interdependence Index values. The U.S. maintains a moderate level of dependence on semiconductor imports due to its strong presence in manufacturing and research, while the EU exhibits a relatively higher level of interdependence, emphasizing its reliance on semiconductor imports. The stage-specific analyses indicate that the U.S. and the EU rely on Asia for semiconductor devices, while China and Taiwan have a higher dependence on American intermediate inputs and European lithography machines.


Grubel-Lloyd Index; supply chain; lithography machines; FDI; automotive chip

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