Impact of financial development, energy consumption and urbanization on CO2 emissions from buildings using quantile ARDL model

Seema Rehman, Saif Ullah, Fahad Azim, Haroon Ur Rasheed Khan

Article ID: 2166
Vol 7, Issue 3, 2023

VIEWS - 915 (Abstract) 364 (PDF)


Urbanization plays a crucial role in facilitating the integration of population growth, industrial development, economic expansion, and energy consumption. In this paper, we aim to examine the relationships between CO2 emissions and various factors including economic growth, urbanization, financial development, and energy consumption within Pakistan’s building sector. The study utilizes annual data spanning from 1990 to 2020. To analyze the cointegration relationship between these variables, we employ the quantile autoregressive distributed lag error correction model (QARDL-ECM). The findings of this research provide evidence supporting the presence of an asymmetric and nonlinear long-term relationship between the variables under investigation. Based on these results, we suggest the implementation of tariffs on nonrenewable energy sources and the formulation of policies that promote sustainable energy practices. By doing so, policymakers and architects can effectively contribute to minimising environmental damage. Overall, this study offers valuable insights that can assist policymakers and architects in making informed decisions to mitigate environmental harm while fostering sustainable development.


QARDL-ECM; CO2 emission; economic growth; urbanization; energy consumption; financial development; Pakistans

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