Disrupted income of women educators during pandemic: Economic effects, adaptive strategies, and government recovery initiatives

Jason Villota Chavez, Rosalina Del Prado, Marivic Estoque

Article ID: 1973
Vol 7, Issue 2, 2023

VIEWS - 448 (Abstract) 458 (PDF)


The women’s sector in the academe is one of the most affected profiles during the COVID-19 pandemic which directly ravages their livelihood and other economic activities. Thus, this research project investigated the economic situations of 30 private and public-school teachers who were displaced from their occupations or were forcibly deprived of income-generating activities. In-depth interviews as research instruments were employed in the study to extract responses on how the educators creatively apply adaptive economic strategies and how government should aid them during a global crisis. The research findings showed that the pandemic has affected the economic activities of the respondents including the loss of their livelihood and other economic sidelines. They responded to these economic effects through adaptive strategies using diversifying and analyzing trends, using digital technology resources, data-driven, acquiring new alternative skills, pricing strategy, and becoming an expert. Results dictated that government could support affected women by initiating training options, homepreneurship support, encouraging independent income-earners, financial management and tax breaks, and industry compatibility endorsement. This study is important to map out the specific economic effects of the pandemic and aid them with initiatives by providing them with concrete economic tools and programs.


COVID-19 pandemic; women educators; adaptive strategies; economic effects; government initiatives

Full Text:



Banerjee D, Rai M (2020). Social isolation in Covid-19: The impact of loneliness. International Journal of Social Psychiatry 66(6): 525–527. doi: 10.1177/0020764020922269

Baumert S, Luz AC, Fisher C, et al. (2016). Charcoal supply chains from Mabalane to Maputo: Who benefits? Energy for Sustainable Development 33: 129–138. doi: 10.1016/j.esd.2016.06.003

Braun V, Clarke V (2012). Thematic analysis. In: Cooper H, Camic PM, Long DL, et al. (editors). APA Handbook of Research Methods in Psychology. American Psychological Association. Volume 2. pp. 57–71. doi: 10.1037/13620-004

Campbell C, McAvoy G (2020). Florida fruit and vegetable growers’ adaptation and response to COVID-19. Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development 9(4): 165–169, doi: 10.5304/jafscd.2020.094.032

Carbayas R (2021). Zambo women venture on urban gardening. Available online: https://pia.gov.ph/gender-and-development/2021/08/12/zambo-women-venture-on-urban-gardening (accessed on 28 July 2023).

Chauhan RS (2022). Unstructured interviews: Are they really all that bad? Human Resource Development International 25(4): 474–487. doi: 10.1080/13678868.2019.1603019

Chavez JV (2020a). Academic and health insecurities of indigent students during pandemic: Study on adaptive strategies under learning constraints. Journal of Multidisciplinary in Social Sciences 16(3): 74–81.

Chavez JV (2020b). Assessing online academic integrity and humanized teaching in Zamboanga Peninsula Polytechnic State University. Journal of Multidisciplinary in Social Sciences 19(1): 9–17.

Chavez JV, Lamorinas DD (2023). Reconfiguring assessment practices and strategies in online education during the pandemic. International Journal of Assessment Tools in Education 10(1): 160–174. doi: 10.21449/ijate.1094589

Commission on Higher Education (CHED) (2020). CHED heeds the call of displaced teachers; Lauds lawmakers for granting proposal of one-time cash aid to faculty members. Available online: https://ched.gov.ph/ched-heeds-the-call-of-displaced-teachers-lauds-lawmakers-for-granting-proposal-of-one-time-cash-aid-to-faculty-members/ (accessed on 28 July 2023).

Department of Education (2021). Dm No. 062, S. 2022 interim guidelines on private schools voluntary closures and participation in government assistance and subsidies programs in light of the Covid-19 pandemic effective Sy 2021–2022. Available online: https://depedmakati.ph/index.php/2022/02/09/dm-no-062-s-2022-interim-guidelines-on-private-schools-voluntary-closures-and-participation-in-government-assistance-and-subsidies-programs-in-light-of-the-covid-19-pandemic-effective-sy-2021-2022/ (accessed on 28 July 2023).

Edin K, Lein L (1997). Making ends meet: How single mothers survive welfare and low-wage work. Political Science Quarterly 113(2): 350–351. doi: 10.2307/2657888

Etikan I, Musa SA, Alkassim RS (2016). Comparison of convenience sampling and purposive sampling. American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics 5(1): 1–4. doi: 10.11648/j.ajtas.20160501.11

Hilson G, Van Bockstael S, Sauerwein T, et al. (2021). Artisanal and small-scale mining, and COVID-19 in sub-Saharan Africa: A preliminary analysis. World Development 139: 105315. doi: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2020.105315

International Monetary Fund. (2022). Policy response to COVID-19. Available online: https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-toCOVID-19 (accessed on 28 July 2023).

Jelinska M, Paradowski MB (2021). The impact of demographics, life and work circumstances on college and university instructors’ well-being during quaranteaching. Frontiers in Psychology 12: 643229. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.643229

Kantamaneni K, Panneer S, Pushparaj RRB, et al. (2021). Multistakeholder participation in disaster management. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/8245 (accessed on 28 July 2023).

Kapoor H, Ticku A, Tagat A, et al. (2021). Innovation in isolation? COVID-19 lockdown stringency and culture-innovation relationships. Frontiers in Psychology 12: 593359. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.593359

Krauss JE, Barrientos S (2021). Fairtrade and beyond: Shifting dynamics in cocoa sustainability production networks. Geoforum 120: 186–197. doi: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2021.02.002

Krauss JE, Artur L, Brockington D, et al. (2022). ‘To prevent this disease, we have to stay at home, but if we stay at home, we die of hunger’—Livelihoods, vulnerability and coping with Covid-19 in rural Mozambique. World Development 151: 105757. doi: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2021.105757

Lochmiller CR (2021). Conducting thematic analysis with qualitative data. Qualitative Report 26(6): 2029–2044. doi: 10.46743/2160-3715/2021.5008

Martin A, Partika A, Castle S, et al. (2022). Both sides of the screen: Predictors of parents’ and teachers’ depression and food insecurity during COVID-19-related distance learning. Early Childhood Research Quarterly 60: 237–249. doi: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2022.02.001

Moghanibashi-Mansourieh A (2021). Vulnerable groups and COVID-19 pandemic; How appropriate are psychosocial responses? In: Gabrielli F, Irtelli F (editors). Anxiety, Uncertainty, and Resilience During the Pandemic Period-Anthropological and Psychological Perspectives. IntechOpen. Volume 37. doi: 10.5772/intechopen.98762

Montiel CJ, Uyheng J, Dela Paz E (2021). The language of pandemic leaderships: Mapping political rhetoric during the COVID‐19 outbreak. Political Psychology 42(5): 747–766. doi: 10.1111/pops.12753

Mozumdar L, Hagelaar G, Van Der Velde G, et al. (2020). Determinants of the business performance of women entrepreneurs in the developing world context. J 3(2): 215–235. doi: 10.3390/j3020017

Osland JS, Mendenhall ME, Reiche BS, et al. (2020). Perspectives on global leadership and the Covid-19 crisis. In: Osland JS, Szkudlarek B, Mendenhall ME, et al. (editors). Advances in Global Leadership. Emerald Publishing Limited. Volume 13. pp. 3–56. doi: 10.1108/S1535-120320200000013001

Oxfam International (2020). Dignity not destitution—An ‘Economic Rescue Plan for All’ to tackle the Coronavirus crisis and rebuild a more equal world. Available online: https://www.oxfam.org/en/research/dignity-not-destitution (accessed on 28 July 2023).

Palinkas LA, Horwitz SM, Green CA, et al. (2015). Purposeful sampling for qualitative data collection and analysis in mixed method implementation research. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research 42: 533–544. doi: 10.1007/s10488-013-0528-y

Panneer S, Kantamaneni K, Palaniswamy U, et al. (2022). Health, economic and social development challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic: Strategies for multiple and interconnected issues. Healthcare 10(5): 770. doi: 10.3390/healthcare10050770

Philippines Statistics Authority (2020). Unemployment rate. Available online: https://psa.gov.ph/ (accessed on 28 July 2023).

Quarterman L, Asi Y, Nanda S (2021). In the shadows of the COVID-19 response: Informal workers and the rise of gender-based violence. Available online: https://www.genderandcovid-19.org/editorial/in-the-shadows-of-the-covid-19-response-informal-workers-and-the-rise-of-gender-based-violence/ (accessed on 28 July 2023).

Ramos G (2020). Women at the core of the fight against COVID-19 crisis. Available online: https://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/policy-responses/women-at-the-core-of-the-fight-against-covid-19-crisis-553a8269/ (accessed on 28 July 2023).

Richards TJ, Rickard B (2020). COVID‐19 impact on fruit and vegetable markets. Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics 68(2): 189–194. doi: 10.1111/cjag.12231

Sotiropoulou I (2014). Women in alternative economy or, what do women do without official currency? Women’s Studies International Forum 47(B): 339–348. doi: 10.1016/j.wsif.2014.10.012

UN (2020). A UN framework for the immediate socio-economic response to COVID-19. Available online: https://unsdg.un.org/sites/default/files/2020-04/UN-framework-for-the-immediate-socio-economic-response-to-COVID-19.pdf (accessed on 28 July 2023).

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (2022). Effects of the COVID-19 lockdown on teachers’ livelihoods. Available online: https://education4resilience.iiep.unesco.org/en/node/1253 (accessed on 28 July 2023).

Vieira CM, Franco OH, Restrepo CG, et al. (2020). COVID-19: The forgotten priorities of the pandemic. Maturitas 136: 38–41. doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2020.04.004

Wenham C, Smith J, Morgan R (2020). COVID-19: The gendered impacts of the outbreak. The Lancet 395(10227): 846–848. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30526-2

World Bank (2020). Effect of COVID-19 to women and girls. Available online: https://live.worldbank.org/coronavirus-impact-pandemic-women-and-girls (accessed on 28 July 2023).

World Economic Forum (WEF) (2022). 3 steps to tackling the global gender gap. Available online: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2022/03/gender-equality-gap-covid-19-economy/ (accessed on 28 July 2023).

Zhang Y, Wildemuth BM (2009). Unstructured interviews. In: Wildemuth BM (editor). Applications of Social Research Methods to Questions in Information and Library Science. Libraries Unlimited. pp. 222–231.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24294/jipd.v7i2.1973


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Jason Villota Chavez, Rosalina Del Prado, Marivic Estoque

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License
This site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.