Nexus between being landlocked and living standards in Sub-Saharan African countries: A two-step System GMM analysis

Mekonnen Kumlachew Yitayaw, Habtamu Legese Feyisa, Wondmagegn Biru Mamo, Yohannes Kefale Mogess

Article ID: 1421
Vol 6, Issue 1, 2022

VIEWS - 951 (Abstract) 364 (PDF)


The ultimate objective of the study was to investigate the effects of being landlocked on the living standards in Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries from 1991 to 2019. Adopting the two-step estimation technique of System GMM (generalized method of moments), the study found that being landlocked has a negative and significant effect on the living standards in SSA countries when using GDP per capita as the living standard measure. Moreover, the historical living standard experiences of SSA countries have a positive and significant influence on the current living standard level. In addition, the population growth rate has a positive and significant effect on the living standards in SSA countries. On the other hand, the official exchange rate, broad money as a percentage of GDP, and inflation have a negative and significant effect on the living standards in SSA countries. Generally, the estimated result reveals the existence of a significant variation in the living standards in landlocked and coastal SSA countries. This study suggests that regional integration between landlocked and transit countries should be improved to minimize entry costs and increase access to global markets for landlocked countries. We argue that this study is of interest to landlocked and coastal countries to increase trade integration and promote the development of both groups, and it will contribute to the scarce empirical evidence.


GDP per capita; landlocked; living standard; Sub-Sahara Africa; System GMM

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