Optimum Groundwater Pumping Rate in Safwan-Zubair Area, Basrah Province, Using Simulated Annealing Technique

Ali H. Al-Aboodi

Article ID: 933
Vol 2, Issue 1, 2018, Article identifier:

VIEWS - 280 (Abstract) 196 (PDF)


Safwan-Zubair area is located in the south –west part of Basrah Province in the south of Iraq, this area is involved within the Dibdibba plain which is considered as a part of Iraqi Western Desert. Dibdibba formation consists mainly from sand and gravel with some cementing materials like silt and clay, especially in the west of Zubair area. A linked simulation-optimization model for obtaining the optimum pumping rate of groundwater is presented in this paper. Processing Modflow for Windows (PMWIN v.5) is selected to simulate the aquifer behavior being studied. This model is integrated with an optimization model which is based on the simulated annealing (SA) technique. The calibrated values of hydraulic conductivity vary over the range (15-150) m/day; while, the calibrated values of specific yield vary over the range (0.125-0.45). The objective function converges to a maximum value of (0.636925E+8 m3/year). The percentage ratio of inactive wells is 10.9 %, many wells in the study area that occupy incorrect positions, these wells must be turn off for obtaining optimum pumping rate in the study area.


optimum; groundwater; MODFLOW; simulated annealing; Basrah; Iraq

Full Text:



Gleick PH. The world's water 2000-2001, the biennial report on freshwater resources. Washington, DC, Island press. 2000.

Gill GJ. Agriculture and natural resources management, Journal of Asian Economics 7(2): 317-332.

Buday T. 1980. The regional geology of Iraq, stratighraphy and paleogeolography. Dar-Al-Kutib Pub.House, Univ. of Mousl,1996; 1: 445p.

Macfadyen NA. "Water Supplies in Iraq", Publication No.1, Ministry of Economics and Communications, Iraq, Geology DEPT., Government of Iraq, Baghdad printing press. 1938.

Al-Kubaisi QY. "Quaternary-Tertiary Hydrogeologic Boundary Condition at Safwan-Zubair Area, South of Iraq" , Iraq Jour. Scie., 1999; 40(3): 21-28.

Al-Aboodi AH, Khudhair KM, Al-Aidani AS. Prediction of Groundwater Level in Safwan-Zubair Area Using Artificial Neural Networks, Basrah Journal for Engineering Sciences 2016; 16( 1).

Zheng C, Wang PP. A Modular Groundwater Optimizer Incorporating MODFLOW/MT3DMS. The University of Alabama, documentation and user’s guide. 2003; 119 p.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24294/nrcr.v2i1.933


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License

This site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.