Polyaniline modified silica gel coupled with green solvent as eco favourable mobile phase in thin layer chromatographic analysis of organic dyes

Mahfoozurrahman Khan, Ali Mohammad, Qasim Ullah, Faiz Mohammad

Article ID: 747
Vol 4, Issue 1, 2021, Article identifier:41-55

VIEWS - 271 (Abstract) 63 (PDF)

Abstract


This article studies a new green eco-friendly TLC (thin layer chromatography) using silica gel and polyaniline modified silica gel as stationary phase in combination with ethyl acetate (EA), n-butyl acetate (BA) and butane-1-ol (BO) solutions as mobile phase for the comparative study of migration behaviour of organic dyes to identify the most suitable thin layer chromatographic system for the resolution of co-existing dyes. Better separation efficiency was observed by modifying silica gel with polyaniline as compared to pure silica stationary phase. Densitogrpahic presentation of separations achieved on polyaniline modified silica gel Pani@SG-EB1 was also presented. The thin layer chromatographic system comprising of polyaniline modified silica gel Pani@SG-EB1 as stationary phase and n-butyl acetate:DDW, 5:5 as green mobile phase was observed to be the most favourable for the separation of various combinations of three or four-component mixtures of organic dyes viz. methyl thymol blue, tartrazine, carmoisine, rose bengal, amidoblack 10B, bromopyrogallol red and 4-nitrobenzene dizonium tetrafluoroborate. The effect of presence of cations and anions on separation trend was also examined and the limits of detection of the separated organic dyes were estimated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron micrograph (TEM) studies were undertaken to characterize silica gel and modified silica gel (stationary phase). The developed method has been successfully applied for the identification of carmoisine in Solvin cold DS syrup and tartrazine in MefastTM syrup.

Keywords


Organic Dyes; Modified Silica Gel; Densitometry; Pharmaceutical Syrup; Thin Layer Chromatography

Full Text:

PDF

References


Aberoumand A. A review article on edible pigments properties and sources as natural biocolorants in foodstuff and food industry. World Journal of Dairy & Food Sciences 2011; 6: 71–78.

Huang D, Ou B, Prior RL. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2005; 53: 1841–1856.

Hajimahmoodi M, Afsharimanesh M, Moghaddam G, et al. Determination of eight synthetic dyes in foodstuffs by green liquid chromatography. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A 2013; 30: 780–785.

Alves SP, Brum DM, de Andrade e CM, et al. Determination of Synthetic Dyes in Selected Foodstuffs by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with UV-DAD Detection. Food Chemistry 2008; 107: 489–496.

Llamas NE, Garrido M, Di Nezio MS, et al. Second order advantage in the determination of amaranth, sunset yellow FCF and tartrazine by UV–vis and multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares. Analytica Chimica Acta 2009; 655: 38–42.

Larsen JC. Legal and illegal colours. Trends in Food Science & Technology 2008; 19: S64–S69.

Nevado J, Flores JR, Llerena MJV. Adsoptive stripping voltammetry of Tartrazine at the hanging mercury drop electrode in soft drinks. Fresenius’ Journal of Analytical Chemistry 1997; 357: 989–994.

Silva MLS, Garcia MBQ, Lima JL, et al. Voltammetric determination of food colorants using a polyallylamine modified tubular electrode in a multicommutated flow system. Talanta 2007; 72: 282–288.

Amini M, Arami M, Mahmoodi NM, et al. Dye removal from colored textile wastewater using acrylic grafted nanomembrane. Desalination 2011; 267: 107–113.

Harrelkas F, Azizi A, Yaacoubi A, et al. Treatment of textile dye effluents using coagulation–flocculation coupled with membrane processes or adsorption on powdered activated carbon. Desalination 2009; 235: 330–339.

Chen AH, Chen SM. Biosorption of azo dyes from aqueous solution by glutaraldehyde-crosslinked chitosans. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2009; 172: 1111–1121.

Charumathi D, Das N. Packed bed column studies for the removal of synthetic dyes from textile wastewater using immobilised dead C. tropicalis. Desalination 2012; 285: 22–30.

Ma M, Luo X, Chen B, et al. Simultaneous determination of water-soluble and fat-soluble synthetic colorants in foodstuff by high-performance liquid chromatography–diode array detection–electrospray mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A 2006; 1103: 170–176.

Vachirapatama V, Mahajaroensiri J, Visessanguan W. Identification and determination of seven synthetic dyes in foodstuffs and soft drinks on monolithic C18 column by high performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis 2008; 16: 77–82.

Young ML. Rapid identification of color additives, using the C18 cartridge: Collaborative study. Journal of Association of Official Analytical Chemists 1988; 71: 458–461.

Steele JA. High performance thin layer chromatographic identification of synthetic food dyes in alcoholic products. Journal of Association of Official Analytical Chemists 1984; 67: 540–541.

Oka H, Ikai Y, Kawamura N, et al. Simple method for the analysis of food dyes on reversed-phase thin-layer plates. Journal of Chromatography 1987; 411: 437–444.

Horwitz W, Chichilo P, Reynolds H. Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Washington, DC, USA: Association of Official Analytical Chemists; 1970.

Fogg AG, Summan AM. Differential-pulse polarographic monitoring of permitted synthetic food colouring matters and ascorbic acid in accelerated light degradation studies and the spectrophotometric determination of the ammonia and simpler amines formed. Analyst 1983; 108: 691–700.

Ni Y, Bai J, Jin L. Simultaneous adsorptive voltammetric analysis of mixed colorants by multivariate calibration approach. Analytica Chimica Acta 1996; 329: 65–72.

Combeau S, Chatelut M, Vittori O. Identification and simultaneous determination of Azorubin, Allura red and Ponceau 4R by differential pulse polarography: application to soft drinks. Talanta 2002; 56: 115–122.

Graichen C. Quantitative determination of FD&C colors in foods. Journal of Association of Official Analytical Chemists 1975; 58: 278–282.

Vidotti EC, Cancino JC, Oliveira CC, et al. Simultaneous determination of food dyes by first derivative spectrophotometry with sorption onto polyurethane foam. Analytical Sciences 2005; 21: 149–153.

Yang Y, Yin J, Shao B. Simultaneous determination of five aluminum lake dyes in chewing gum by HPLC with photodiode array detection. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A 2011; 28: 1159–1167.

Sun S, Wang Y, Yu W, et al. Determination of sudan dyes in red wine and fruit juice using ionic liquid-based liquid–liquid microextraction and high-performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Separation Science 2011; 34: 1730–1737.

Liu R, Hei W, He P, et al. Simultaneous determination of fifteen illegal dyes in animal feeds and poultry products by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography B 2011; 879: 2416–2422.

Huang HY, Shih YC, Chen YC. Determining eight colorants in milk beverages by capillary electrophoresis. Journal of Chromatography A 2002; 959: 317–325.

Ishikawa R, Oishi M, Kimura K, et al. Determination of synthetic food dyes in food by capillary electrophoresis. Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan 2004; 45: 150–155.

Prado MA, Boas LFV, Bronze MR, et al. Validation of methodology for simultaneous determination of synthetic dyes in alcoholic beverages by capillary electrophoresis. Journal of Chromatography A 2006; 1136: 231–236.

Chen Q, Mou S, Hou X, et al. Determination of eight synthetic food colorants in drinks by high-performance ion chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A 1998; 827: 73–81.

Tesic Z, Opsenica DM. Inorganic ion exchangers in paper and thin-layerchromatographic separations. In: Inamuddin, Luqman M (editors). chapter 15, Ion Exchange Technology II: Application, Springer Netherlands. Springer Netherlands; 2012. p. 365–389.

Dhote SS, Deshmukh L, Paliwal L. Heavy metal ions separation on thin layer of impregnated carbamideformaldehyde polymer. Journal of Chromatography & Separation Techniques 2012; 3(2): 1–3.

Soponar F, Moţ AV, Sarbu C. Quantitative determination of some food dyes using digital processing of images obtained by thin-layer chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A 2008; 1188: 295–300.

Mohammad A, Inamuddin, Siddiq A, et al. Green solvents in thin-layer chromatography. In: Mohammad A, Inamuddin (editios). Green Solvents I. Springer, Dordrecht; 2012. p. 331–361.

Huang S, Xiao Q, Li R, et al. A simple and sensitive method for L-cysteine detection based on the fluorescence intensity increment of quantum dots. Analytica Chimica Acta 2009; 645: 73–78.

Ge H, Wallace GG. High-performance liquid chromatography on polypyrrole-modified silica. Journal of Chromatography A 1991; 588: 25–31.

Behera D, Satapathy H, Bhanthia AK. Synthesis, purification and curing properties of vinyl ester network. Pigment & Resin Technology 2006; 35: 319–325.

Kamistos EI, Patsis AP, Kordas G. Infrared-reflectance spectra of heat-treated sol-gel-derived silica. Physical Review B 1993; 48: 12499.

Wood DL, Rabinovich EM. Study of alkoxide silica gels by infrared spectroscopy. Applied Spectroscopy 1989; 43: 263–267.

Ansari MO, Yadav SK, Cho JW, et al. Thermal stability in terms of DC electrical conductivity retention and the efficacy of mixing technique in the preparation of nanocomposites of graphene/polyaniline over the carbon nanotubes/polyaniline. Composites Part B: Engineering 2013; 47: 155–161.

Ansari MO, Mohammad F. Thermal stability of HCl-doped-polyaniline and TiO2 nanoparticles-based nanocomposites. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 2012; 124: 4433–4442.

Shan Y, Gao L. Synthesis, characterization and optical properties of CdS nanoparticles confined in SBA-15. Materials Chemistry and Physics 2005; 89: 412–416.

Yu MR, Suyambrakasam G, Wu RJ, et al. Preparation of organic–inorganic (SWCNT/TWEEN–TEOS) nano hybrids and their NO gas sensing properties. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 2012; 161: 938–947.

Zheng C, Chen W, Ye X. Study on Au nanoparticles, TiO2 nanoclusters, and SiO2 nanoshells coated multi-wall carbon nanotubes/silica gel-glass. Optical Materials 2012; 34: 1042–1047.

Goren M, Qi Z, Lennox RB. Selective templated growth of polypyrrole strands on lipid tubule edges. Chemistry of Materials 2000; 12: 1222–1228.

Guo J, Gu H, Wei H, et al. Magnetite–polypyrrole metacomposites: Dielectric properties and magnetoresistance behavior. The Journal of Physical Chemistry 2013; 117: 10191–10202.

Wu CM, Lin SY, Chen HL. Structure of a monolithic silica aerogel prepared from a short-chain ionic liquid. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials 2012; 156: 189–195.

Chen M, Du C, Wang L, et al. Silicon/graphite/polyaniline nanocomposite with improved lithium-storage capacity and cyclability as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. International Journal of Electrochemical Science 2012; 7: 819–829.

Mohammad A, Mobin R. Resolution of a three-component mixture of methyl group substituted cationic surfactants by use of a green eluent: A thin-layer chromatographic approach. Journal of Planar Chromatography – Modern TLC 2015; 28: 17–23.

Shimada T, Aoki K, Shinoda Y, et al. Functionalization on silica gel with allylsilanes: A new method of covalent attachment of organic functional groups on silica gel. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2003; 125: 4688–4689.

Ahmad S, Sultan A, Raza W, et al. Boron nitride based polyaniline nanocomposite: Preparation, property, and application. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 2016; 133.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24294/ace.v4i1.747

Refbacks



Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License

This site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.