Vol 6, No 2 (Published)

Table of Contents

Open Access
Original Research Article
Article ID: 2188
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by Fangtian Sun, Xiaoqing Zhao, Wanqing Xu, Zhicheng Wang, Yonghua Xie
Therm. Sci. Eng. 2023 , 6(2);    445 Views
Abstract Due to the short cost-effective heat transportation distance, the existing geothermal heating technologies cannot be used to develop deep hydrothermal-type geothermal fields situated far away from urban areas. To solve the problem, a new multi-energy source coupling a low-temperature sustainable central heating system with a multifunctional relay energy station is put forward. As for the proposed central heating system, a compression heat pump integrated with a heat exchanger in the heating substation and a gas-fired water/lithium bromide single-effect absorption heat pump in the multifunctional relay energy station are used to lower the return temperature of the primary network step by step. The proposed central heating system is analyzed using thermodynamics and economics, and matching relationships between the design temperature of the return water and the main line length of the primary network are discussed. The studied results indicate that, as for the proposed central heating system, the cost-effective main line length of the primary network can approach 33.8 km, and the optimal design return temperature of the primary network is 23 ℃ . Besides, the annual coefficient of performance and annual energy efficiency of the proposed central heating system are about 3.01 and 42.7%, respectively.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
Article ID: 2029
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by Zhipeng Yao, Yujiao Shang, Yuping Shang
Therm. Sci. Eng. 2023 , 6(2);    294 Views
Abstract
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Open Access
Original Research Article
Article ID: 2292
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by Abu Rayhan, Mahmidul Hasan Bhuiyan, Sk. A. Shezan, Fatin Ishraque, Altab Hossain, Siam Iqbal, Mehedi Hasan, Sharmin Akter Asha
Therm. Sci. Eng. 2023 , 6(2);    282 Views
Abstract The challenge of rural electrification has become more challenging today than ever before. Grid-connected and off-grid microgrid systems are playing a very important role in this problem. Examining each component’s ideal size, facility system reactions, and other microgrid analyses, this paper proposes the design and implementation of an off-grid hybrid microgrid in Chittagong and Faridpur with various load dispatch strategies. The hybrid microgrids with a load of 23.31 kW and the following five dispatch algorithms have been optimized: (i) load following, (ii) HOMER predictive, (iii) combined dispatch, (iv) generator order, and (v) cycle charging dispatch approach. The proposed microgrids have been optimized to reduce the net present cost, CO 2 emissions, and levelized cost of energy. All five dispatch strategies for the two microgrids have been analyzed in HOMER Pro. Power system reactions and feasibility analyses of microgrids have been performed using ETAP simulation software. For both the considered locations, the results propound that load-following is the outperforming approach, which has the lowest energy cost of $0.1728/kWh, operational cost of $2944.13, present cost of $127,528.10, and CO 2 emission of 2746 kg/year for the Chittagong microgrid and the lowest energy cost of $0.2030/kWh, operating cost of $3530.34, present cost of 149,287.30, and CO 2 emission of 3256 kg/year for the Faridpur microgrid with a steady reaction of the power system.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
Article ID: 2487
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by Antonio Campo
Therm. Sci. Eng. 2023 , 6(2);    248 Views
Abstract Heat conduction theory stipulates that two thermo-physical properties of materials: the thermal conductivity “ k ” and the thermal diffusivity “ α ” influence the temperature evolution in regular and irregular bodies as a response to various cooling/heating conditions. The traditional statement involving the two thermo-physical properties is examined at length in the present study for the case of a semi-infinite region. The primary objective of the present study is to investigate the influence of the less known thermo-physical property called the thermal effusivity “ e ” on the incipient surface temperature rise in a semi-infinite body affected by uniform surface heat flux. The secondary objective of the study is to identify a key figure of merit named the dimensionless threshold time that separates the incipient temperature elevation in a semi-infinite region from the incipient temperature elevation in a large wall of finite thickness under the same uniform surface heat flux . The outcome of the methodical analysis suggests that the accurate estimate for the dimensionless threshold time τ th in the semi-infinite region should be 0.10.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
Article ID: 2087
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by Aidin Shaghaghi, Reza Omidifar, Rahim Zahedi, Ali Asghar Pourezzat, Mansour Keshavarzzadeh
Therm. Sci. Eng. 2023 , 6(2);    257 Views
Abstract To gain a deep understanding of maintenance and repair planning, investigate the weak points of the distribution network, and discover unusual events, it is necessary to trace the shutdowns that occurred in the network. Many incidents happened due to the failure of thermal equipment in schools. On the other hand, the most important task of electricity distribution companies is to provide reliable and stable electricity, which minimal blackouts and standard voltage should accompany. This research uses seasonal time series and artificial neural network approaches to provide models to predict the failure rate of one of the equipment used in two areas covered by the greater Tehran electricity distribution company. These data were extracted weekly from April 2019 to March 2021 from the ENOX incident registration software. For this purpose, after pre-processing the data, the appropriate final model was presented with the help of Minitab and MATLAB software. Also, average air temperature, rainfall, and wind speed were selected as input variables for the neural network. The mean square error has been used to evaluate the proposed models’ error rate. The results show that the time series models performed better than the multi-layer perceptron neural network in predicting the failure rate of the target equipment and can be used to predict future periods.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
Article ID: 2595
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by Ziad Khan, Rashid Jan, Muhammad Jawad, Fawad Hussain
Therm. Sci. Eng. 2023 , 6(2);    299 Views
Abstract The current study provides a comprehensive analysis of MHD hybrid nanofluids and stagnation point flow toward a porous stretched cylinder in the presence of thermal radiation. Here, alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) and copper (Cu) are considered the hybrid nanoparticles, while water (H 2 O) is the base fluid. To begin, the required similarity transformations are applied to transform the nonlinear coupled PDEs into nonlinear coupled ODEs. The obtained highly nonlinear sets of ODEs are then solved analytically by using the HAM procedure. The calculations of the thermal radiation term in the energy equation are done based on the Roseland approximation. The result of various embedded variables on temperature and velocity profiles is drawn and explained briefly. Aside from that, the numerical solution of well-known physical quantities, like skin friction and the Nusselt number, is computed by means of tables for the modification of the relevant parameter. The analysis shows that the magnetic field has opposite behavior on θ ( η ) and f' ( η ) profiles. It is seen that more magnetic factors M decline f' ( η ) and upsurge θ ( η ). Moreover, the behavior of skin friction and the Nusselt number are the same for the magnetic parameter M . Meanwhile, a higher Reynolds number R e declines temperature profile and skin friction while upsurging the local Nusselt number. There are many applications of this study that are not limited to engineering and manufacturing, such as polymer industry, crystal growth, tumor therapy, plasma, fusing metal in electric heaters, nuclear reactors, asthma treatment, gastric medication, cooling of atomic systems, electrolytic biomedicine, helical coil heat exchangers, axial fan design, polymer industry, plane counter jets, and solar collectors.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
Article ID: 2494
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by Ho Jong Kim, Rakish Shrestha, Samman Singh Pradhan, Prithvi Gurung, Prabesh Bhattarai, Nirjal Lamichhane, Cheol Sang Kim, Ranjit Shrestha
Therm. Sci. Eng. 2023 , 6(2);    587 Views
Abstract Modelling and simulation have now become standard methods that serve to cut the economic costs of R&D for novel advanced systems. This paper introduces the study of modelling and simulation of the infrared thermography process to detect defects in the hydroelectric penstock. A 3-D penstock model was built in ANSYS version 19.2.0. Flat bottom holes of different sizes and depths were created on the inner surface of the model as an optimal scenario to represent the subsurface defect in the penstock. The FEM was applied to mimic the heat transfer in the proposed model. The model’s outer surface was excited at multiple excitation frequencies by a sinusoidal heat flux, and the thermal response of the model was presented in the form of thermal images to show the temperature contrast due to the presence of defects. The harmonic approximation method was applied to calculate the phase angle, and its relationship with respect to defect depth and defect size was also studied. The results confirmed that the FEM model has led to a better understanding of lock-in infrared thermography and can be used to detect subsurface defects in the hydroelectric penstock.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
Article ID: 2082
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by Vetlugin Beybalayev, Abutrab Aliverdiev
Therm. Sci. Eng. 2023 , 6(2);    179 Views
Abstract The work is devoted to the numerical solution of the initial boundary value problem for the heat equation with a fractional Riesz derivative. Explicit and implicit difference schemes are constructed that approximate the boundary value problem for the heat equation with a fractional Riesz derivative with respect to the coordinate. In the case of an explicit difference scheme, a condition is obtained for the time step at which the difference scheme converges. For an implicit difference scheme, a theorem on unconditional convergence is proved. An example of a numerical calculation using an implicit difference scheme is given. It has been established that when passing to a fractional derivative, the process of heat propagation slows down.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
Article ID: 3968
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by Shreedevi Kalyan, Jumanne Mng’ang’a
Therm. Sci. Eng. 2023 , 6(2);    152 Views
Abstract This research paper explores the influence of first-order chemical reactions on the sustainable properties of electrically conducting magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluids in a vertical channel with the unique characteristics of Jeffrey fluid flow. The mathematical model of MHD flow with Jeffrey fluid and chemical reaction incorporates the impacts of viscous dissipation, Joule heating, and a non-Newtonian fluid model with viscoelastic properties in the flow regions. The governing equations of the flow field were solved using the finite difference method, and the impacts of flow parameters on the flow characteristics were discussed numerically using a graphical representation. It’s revealed that increasing the Jeffrey parameter results in a decline in the velocity field profiles. Also, species concentration field profiles decline with higher values of the destruction chemical reaction parameter. The findings of this study have significant implications for various engineering applications, including energy generation, aerospace engineering, and material processing. Additionally, the inclusion of Jeffrey’s fluid flow introduces a viscoelastic component, enhancing the complexity of the fluid dynamics.
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Open Access
Original Research Article
Article ID: 4424
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by Akira Nishimura, Daiki Mishima, Syogo Ito, Tsubasa Konbu, Eric Hu
Therm. Sci. Eng. 2023 , 6(2);    95 Views
Abstract Considering the application of the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), the separator thickness plays a significant role to determine the weight, the volume and the costs of the PEMFC. In addition, thermal management, i.e., temperature distribution is also important for the PEMFC system to obtain higher performance. However, there were few reports investigating the relation between the temperature profile and the power generation characteristics e.g., current density distribution of PEMFC operated at higher temperature (HT-PEMFC). This paper aims to study the impact of separator thickness on the temperature profile and the current density profile of HT-PEMFC. The impact of separator thickness on the gases i.e., H 2 , O 2 profile of HT-PEMFC numerically was also studied using CFD software COMSOL Multiphysics in the paper. In the study, the operating temperature and the relative humidity (RH) of supply gas were varied with the separator thickness of 2.0 mm, 1.5 mm and 1.0 mm, respectively. The study revealed that the optimum thickness was 2.0 mm to realize higher power generation of HT-PEMFC. The heat capacity of the separator thickness of 2.0 mm was the biggest among the separators investigated in this study, resulting that the dry up of PEM and catalyst layer was lower compared to the thinner separator thickness. It was also clarified the effects of separator thickness of profile gases, e.g., O 2 , H 2 O, and current density profile became larger under the higher temperature and the lower RH conditions.
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Open Access
Review Article
Article ID: 2568
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by Khawla Sleiman, Stefan Van Vaerenbergh, Tayssir Hamieh
Therm. Sci. Eng. 2023 , 6(2);    266 Views
Abstract A salinity gradient solar pond (SGSP) is a large and deep artificial basin of layered brine, that collects and stores simultaneous solar energy for use in various applications. Experimental and theoretical studies have been launched to understand the thermal behavior of SGSPs, under different operating conditions. This article then traces the history of SGSPs, from their natural discovery to their current artificial applications and the progress of studies and research, according to their chronological sequence, in terms of determining their physical and dynamic aspects, their operation, management, and maintenance. It has extensively covered the theoretical and experimental studies, as well as the direct and laboratory applications of this technology, especially the most famous and influential in this field, classified according to the aspect covered by the study, with a comparison between the different results obtained. In addition, it highlighted the latest methods to improve the performance of an SGSP and facilitate its operation, such as the use of a magnetic field and the adoption of remote data acquisition, with the aim of expanding research and enhancing the benefit of this technology.
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Open Access
Review Article
Article ID: 5268
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by Jim Baird
Therm. Sci. Eng. 2023 , 6(2);    228 Views
Abstract Global warming is a thermodynamics problem. When excess heat is added to the climate system, the land warms more quickly than the oceans due to the land’s reduced heat capacity. The oceans have a greater heat capacity because of its higher specific heat and the heat mixing in the upper layer of the ocean. Thermodynamic Geoengineering (TG) is a global cooling method which deployed at scale would generate 1.6 times the world’s current supply of primary energy and remove carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from the atmosphere. The cooling would mirror the ostensible 2008–2013 global warming hiatus. At scale 31,000 1-gigawatt (GW) ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plants are estimated to be able to: a) displace about 0.8 watts per square meter (W/m 2 ) of average global surface heat from the surface of the ocean to deep water that could be recycled in 226-year cycles, b) produce 31 terawatts (TW) (relative to 2019 global use of 19.2 TW and c) absorb about 4.3 Gt CO 2 per year from the atmosphere by cooling the surface. The estimated cost of these plants is $2.1 trillion per year or 30 years to ramp up to 31,000 plants which are replaced as needed thereafter. Compared for example to the cost of world oil consumption that in 2019 was $2.3 trillion for 11.6 TW. The cost of the energy generated is estimated at $0.008/KWh.
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