Design and implementation of an off-grid hybrid microgrid for Chittagong and Faridpur

Abu Rayhan, Mahmidul Hasan Bhuiyan, Sk. A. Shezan, Fatin Ishraque, Altab Hossain, Siam Iqbal, Mehedi Hasan, Sharmin Akter Asha

Article ID: 2292
Vol 6, Issue 2, 2023

VIEWS - 76 (Abstract) 29 (PDF)


The challenge of rural electrification has become more challenging today than ever before. Grid-connected and off-grid microgrid systems are playing a very important role in this problem. Examining each component’s ideal size, facility system reactions, and other microgrid analyses, this paper proposes the design and implementation of an off-grid hybrid microgrid in Chittagong and Faridpur with various load dispatch strategies. The hybrid microgrids with a load of 23.31 kW and the following five dispatch algorithms have been optimized: (i) load following, (ii) HOMER predictive, (iii) combined dispatch, (iv) generator order, and (v) cycle charging dispatch approach. The proposed microgrids have been optimized to reduce the net present cost, CO2 emission, and levelized cost of energy. All five dispatch strategies for the two microgrids have been analyzed in HOMER Pro. Power system reactions and feasibility analyses of microgrids have been performed using ETAP simulation software. For both the considered locations, the results propound that load following is the outperforming approach having the lowest energy cost of $0.1728/kWh, operational cost of $2944.13, present cost of $127,528.10, and CO2 emission of 2746 kg/year for the Chittagong microgrid and lowest energy cost of $0.2030/kWh, operating cost of $3530.34, present cost of 149,287.30, and CO2 emission of 3256 kg/year for Faridpur microgrid with a steady reaction of the power system.


renewable energy technology; optimization; power system stability; control technique; coastal area

Full Text:



1. Bahramara S, Moghaddam MP, Haghifam MR. Optimal planning of hybrid renewable energy systems using HOMER: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2016; 62: 609–620. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2016.05.039

2. Arefin SS, Das N. Optimized hybrid wind-diesel energy system with feasibility analysis. Technology and Economics of Smart Grids and Sustainable Energy 2017; 2(1): 1–8.

3. Hossain MF, Hossain S, Uddin MJ. Renewable energy: Prospects and trends in Bangladesh. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2017; 70: 44–49.

4. SREDA. National database of renewable energy. Available online: (accessed on 18 September 2023).

5. Hossain S, Rahman MM. Solar energy prospects in Bangladesh: Target and current status. Energy and Power Engineering 2021; 13(8): 322–332.

6. Arefin SS, Ishraque F. Wind Energy and Future Trends. Elsevier; 2023.

7. Arefin SS, Ishraque F, Shafiullah GM. Economic Assessment of Onshore and Offshore Wind Energy Systems. Elsevier; 2023.

8. Islam MR, Islam MR, Beg MRA. Renewable energy resources and technologies practice in Bangladesh. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2008; 12(2): 299–343.

9. Kumar PP, Rahmanet A, Nuvvula RSS, et al. Using energy conservation-based demand-side management to optimize an off-grid integrated renewable energy system using different battery technologies. Sustainability 2023; 15(13): 10137. doi: 10.3390/su151310137

10. Rafi AA, Jaman SK, Hasan N, et al. Renewable energy-based hybrid microgrid for economically effective coastal electrification. IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity 2021; 31(8): 1–5.

11. Shezan SA, Saidur R, Ullah KR, et al. Feasibility analysis of a hybrid off-grid wind-DG-battery energy system for the eco-tourism remote areas. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy 2015; 17: 2417–2430. doi: 10.1007/s10098-015-0983-0

12. Shezan SA, Hasan KN, Rahman A, et al. Selection of appropriate dispatch strategies for effective planning and operation of a microgrid. Energies 2021; 14(21): 7217. doi: 10.3390/en14217217

13. Melo JJR, Ishraque F, Shafiullah GM, Shezan SA. Centralized monitoring of a cost efficient PLC-SCADA based islanded microgrid considering dispatch techniques. The Journal of Engineering 2023; 2023(8): e12293.

14. Ishraque F, Shezan SA, Ali MM, Rashid MM. Optimization of load dispatch strategies for an islanded microgrid connected with renewable energy sources. Applied Energy 2021; 292: 116879. doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2021.116879

15. Rai V, Sehrawat S, Pandey K. Transient stability analysis of wind turbine based micro grid using ETAP software. International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology 2014; 3(4).

16. ETAP microgrid controller. Available online: (accessed on 18 September 2023).

17. Khalil L, Bhatti KL, Awan MAI, et al. Optimization and designing of hybrid power system using HOMER pro. Materials Today: Proceedings 2021; 47: S110–S115. doi: 10.1016/j.matpr.2020.06.054



  • There are currently no refbacks.

License URL:

Creative Commons License

This site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.