Vol 5, No 2 (2022)

Geospatial data collection and processing technologies are becoming increasingly important. The latest issue of Journal of Geography and Cartography features the diverse role of digital innovations in shaping the theory, methods, and applications of these disciplines. They demonstrate how the rapid evolution of tools and techniques for spatial data capture, analysis, and visualization is enabling geographers and cartographers to gather more detailed, accurate, and comprehensive information than ever before. As geographers and cartographers continue to harness the power of innovative tools and computational techniques, they are poised to generate new insights, improve decision-support capabilities, and drive transformative change across a wide range of geographic contexts.

Table of Contents

Open Access
Article
Article ID: 1668
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by Qiuming Zhu, Xiaofu Du, Qihui Wu, Jie Wang, Yi Zhao, Kai Mao, Weizhi Zhong
J. Geogr. Cartogr. 2022 , 5(2);    362 Views
Abstract Spectrum map is the foundation of spectrum resource management, security governance and spectrum warfare. Aiming at the problem that the traditional spectrum mapping is limited to two-dimensional space, a three-dimensional spectrum data acquisition and mapping system architecture for the integration of space, sky and earth is presented, and a spectrum map reconstruction scheme driven by propagation model is proposed, which can achieve high-precision three-dimensional spectrum map rendering under the condition of sparse sampling. The spectrum map reconstructed by this method in the case of single radiation source and multiple radiation sources is in good agreement with the theoretical results based on ray tracing method. In addition, the measured results of typical scenes further verify the feasibility of this method.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 1669
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by Yanliang Li, Lanhua Liu, Zhiqiang Li
J. Geogr. Cartogr. 2022 , 5(2);    234 Views
Abstract In order to promote the application of noise map in high-speed railway noise management, the high-speed railway noise map drawing technology based on the combination of noise prediction model and geographic information system (GIS) is studied. Firstly, according to the distribution characteristics of noise sources and line structure characteristics of high-speed railway, the prediction model of multi equivalent sound sources and the calculation method of sound barrier insertion loss of high-speed railway are optimized; secondly, a three-dimensional geographic information model of a high-speed railway is built in GIS software, and the railway noise prediction technology based on the model is developed again; then, the noise of discrete nodes is calculated, and the continuous noise distribution map is drawn by spatial interpolation. The research results show that the comparison error between the noise map of a high-speed railway drawn by this technology and the measured results is less than 1 dB (A), which verifies the accuracy and practicality of the high-speed railway noise map, and can be used as a reference for the railway noise management department to formulate noise control countermeasures.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 1671
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by Víctor Lallana-Llorente
J. Geogr. Cartogr. 2022 , 5(2);    243 Views
Abstract The wide distribution of the common beech ( Fagus sylvatica ) in Europe reveals its great adaptation to diverse conditions of temperature and humidity. This interesting aspect explains the context of the main objective of this work: to carry out a dendroclimatic analysis of the species Fagus sylvatica  in the Polaciones valley (Cantabria), an area of transition with environmental conditions from a characteristic Atlantic type to more Mediterranean, at the southern limit of its growth. The methodology developed is based on the analysis of 25 local chronologies of growth rings sampled at different altitudes along the valley, generating a reference chronology for the study area. Subsequently, the patterns of growth and response to climatic variations are estimated through the response and correlation function, and the most significant monthly variables in the annual growth of the species are obtained. Finally, these are introduced into a Geographic Information System (GIS) where they are cartographically modeled in the altitudinal gradient through multivariate analysis, taking into account the different geographic and topographic variables that influence the zonal variability of the species response. The results of the analyses and cartographic models show which variables are most determinant in the annual growth of the species and the distribution of its climatic response according to the variables considered.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 1673
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by Adolfo Quesada-Román
J. Geogr. Cartogr. 2022 , 5(2);    312 Views
Abstract The Guacimal River catchment has an area of 181 km 2  and is located in the NW of Costa Rica, between the coordinates 84.745° W-10.016° N and 84.909° W-10.325° N. In this territory, as in most of the country, detailed geomorphological studies are scarce; therefore, the objective of this paper is to present the geomorphological mapping at a scale of 1:25,000 of the Guacimal River, which allows us to explain the dynamics of the agents involved in the modeling of the catchment. The work methodology consisted of three stages: pre-mapping, field activity and post-mapping, which resulted in a map in which ten relief forms are represented, ordered according to their morphogenesis in endogenous modeled and exogenous (fluvial, gravitational and littoral). This document will be the base line for land use planning, both continental and coastal, and for local risk management.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 1674
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by Ángel R. Valera, María C. Pineda, Jesús A. Viloria
J. Geogr. Cartogr. 2022 , 5(2);    219 Views
Abstract In order to strengthen the study of soil-landscape relationships in mountain areas, a digital soil mapping approach based on fuzzy set theory was applied. Initially, soil properties were estimated with the regression kriging (RK) method, combining soil data and auxiliary information derived from a digital elevation model (DEM) and satellite images. Subsequently, the grouping of soil properties in raster format was performed with the fuzzy c-means (FCM) algorithm, whose final product resulted in a fuzzy soil class variation model at a semi-detailed scale. The validation of the model showed an overall reliability of 88% and a Kappa index of 84%, which shows the usefulness of fuzzy clustering in the evaluation of soil-landscape relationships and in the correlation with soil taxonomic categories.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 1675
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by Tao Wang, Yungang Liu
J. Geogr. Cartogr. 2022 , 5(2);    539 Views
Abstract Map is the basic language of geography and an indispensable tool for spatial analysis. But for a long time, maps have been regarded as an objective and neutral scientific achievement. Inspired by critical geography, critical cartography/GIS came into being with the goal of clarifying the discourse embedded in cartographic practice. Power relationship challenges the untested assumption in map representation that is taken for granted. After more than 40 years of debate and running in, this research field has initially shown an outline, and critical cartography/GIS has roughly formed two research directions: the deconstruction path mainly starts from the identity of cartography subject and the process of map knowledge production, and analyzes the inseparable relationship between cartography and national governance and its internal power mechanism respectively; the construction path mainly relies on cooperative mapping and anti-mapping to realize the reproduction of map data. Domestic critical cartography/GIS research has just started, and it is necessary to continue to absorb the achievements of critical geography and carry out research in different historical periods. The deconstruction research of different types of maps also needs to strengthen the in-depth bridging between the construction path and the deconstruction path, and to be more open to the public. Impartial map application research, and actively apply the research results to social practice.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 1677
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by Hongxing Pei, Renjian Zhai, Fang Wu, Jinghan Li, Xianyong Gong, Zheng Wu
J. Geogr. Cartogr. 2022 , 5(2);    226 Views
Abstract Aiming at the problem of road network multi-scale matching, a multi-scale road matching method under the constraint of road mesh of small-scale data has been proposed. First, two road meshes with different scale data are constructed; Secondly, under the constraint of the small-scale road mesh, the composite mesh composed of several road meshes in the large-scale road is extracted, and the mesh matching with the small-scale road mesh is completed; T hen, many-to-many matching of road meshes with different scales is realized; finally, the matching relationship between composite mesh and small-scale road mesh is transformed into the matching between multi-scale road mesh boundary roads and internal roads, and the matching of the whole road network is completed. The experimental results show that this method can better realize the matching of multi-scale road network.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 1764
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by Laura Cano Salinas, Rodrigo Rodríguez Laguna, José René Valdez Lazalde, Otilio Arturo Acevedo Sandoval, Beltrán Hernández Rosa Icela
J. Geogr. Cartogr. 2022 , 5(2);    238 Views
Abstract The detection of urban expansion through digital processing of satellite images provides valuable information for understanding the dynamics of land use change and its spatial relationship with environmental factors. In order to apply or generate effective land-use planning policies, it is essential to have a historical record of the regional distribution of human settlements, an element that is practically non-existent in our country. For this reason, this text aims to determine the urban growth rate during the period 2000–2014 in the state of Hidalgo, Mexico, and to identify potential expansion zones from Landsat images. Six Landsat scenes were used for the spatial analysis of the state urban coverage and their relationship with the road influence area was evaluated. Two maps were obtained as cartographic products: one of urban coverage distribution and another of the municipalities with the greatest expansion, whose areas are located in the Valle del Mezquital region. However, Mineral de la Reforma, Tetepango, Tizayuca and Pachuca de Soto stand out for their growth rates during the study period: 183.44%, 102%, 94% and 68.5%, respectively. In total, the state urban area in-creased 72.3 km 2 from 2000 to 2014 with an average growth rate of 1.8% per year. Such growth was associated with the areas of influence of important road infrastructure, such as the Libramiento Arco Norte in Hidalgo. Therefore, the Mezquital Valley and the Mexico Basin are considered as potential regions for urban expansion in the state.
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Open Access
Review
Article ID: 1670
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by Tinghua Ai
J. Geogr. Cartogr. 2022 , 5(2);    453 Views
Abstract Cartography includes two major tasks: map making and map application, which is inextricably linked to artificial intelligence technology. The cartographic expert system experienced the intelligent expression of symbolism. After the spatial optimization decision of behaviorism intelligent expression, cartography faces the combination of deep learning under connectionism to improve the intelligent level of cartography. This paper discusses three problems about the proposition of “deep learning + cartography”. One is the consistency between the deep learning method and the map space problem solving strategy, based on gradient descent, local correlation, feature reduction and non-linear nature that answer the feasibility of the combination of “deep learning + cartography”; the second is to analyze the challenges faced by the combination of cartography from its unique disciplinary characteristics and technical environment, involving the non-standard organization of map data, professional requirements for sample establishment, the integration of geometric and geographical features, as well as the inherent spatial scale of the map; thirdly, the entry points and specific methods for integrating map making and map application into deep learning are discussed respectively.
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Open Access
Review
Article ID: 1676
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by Jinsheng Ning, Yibin Yao, Xiaohong Zhang
J. Geogr. Cartogr. 2022 , 5(2);    307 Views
Abstract Global navigation satellite system and its application fields are constantly expanding and deepening. This paper mainly introduces the current situation of global satellite navigation system and its application technology, development trend and application prospect. At the same time, this paper makes a comprehensive comparison of these navigation systems, analyzes the opportunities and challenges faced by China’s BeiDou satellite navigation system in the global context, and puts forward some suggestions for future work.
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Open Access
Review
Article ID: 1763
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by Montes Galbán Eloy José
J. Geogr. Cartogr. 2022 , 5(2);    224 Views
Abstract This paper carries out an analysis and reflection on how technoscience reaches Geography through Geographic Information Technologies, how it impacts the production of geographic knowledge and how it derives in the possibility of digital experimentation in the discipline in an environment called geo-digital reality. It is shown that advances in GIT have allowed overcoming old limitations, enriching more and more the observations made by Geography, and it is also highlighted the promising future of digital experimentation in Geography through all the possibilities offered by current technological developments.
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Open Access
Review
Article ID: 1761
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by Noelia Principi
J. Geogr. Cartogr. 2022 , 5(2);    230 Views
Abstract This paper presents a brief review of risk studies in Geography since the beginning of the 20th century, from approaches focused on physical-natural components or social aspects, to perspectives that incorporate a systemic approach seeking to understand and explain risk issues at a spatial level. The systemic approach considers principles of interaction between multiple variables and a dynamic organization of processes, as part of a new formulation of the scientific vision of the world. From this perspective, the Complex Systems Theory (CST) is presented as the appropriate conceptual-analytical framework for risk studies in Geography. Finally, the analysis and geographic information integration capabilities of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) based on spatial analysis are explained, which position it as a fundamental conceptual and methodological tool in risk analysis from a systemic approach.
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