Use of steroids and their effects on neuron body cells density in hypothalamus and amygdala.

Alessandra Esteves

Abstract


This experimental study evaluated the effects of supraphysiological doses injections of testosterone cypionate and stanozolol on neural density in mice lateral hypothalamus and central amygdala. For this research 60 Swiss mice were used and divided into three groups: control, stanozolol and testosterone cypionate. Neuron cell bodies profile density estimation was performed according to random simple counting. The use of supraphysiological doses of both anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) proved to be statistically significant for decreasing the number of neuron cell bodies in lateral hypothalamus of male and female mice, and in central amygdala of female mice. The use of AAS such as Deposteron® and Winstrol Depot® can induce neuron cell death, compromises lateral hypothalamus and central amygdala functions, and may lead to behavioral changes.


Keywords


Neuron, Anabolic, Hypothalamus, Amygdala.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Hebert A, Haupt MD, George D et al, 1984, Anabolic steroids: a review of the literature, The American Journal of Sports Medicine, vol 12(6):469-484. doi: 10.1177/036354658401200613

Kuhn CM, 2002, Anabolic steroids. Recent Progress in Hormone Research, vol 57: 411-434.

Handelsman DJ, Fahms F, 2001, Androgen action and pharmacologic uses, Endotext, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK279000.

Fuller MG, 1993, Anabolic-androgenic steroids: use and abuse, Comprehensive Therapy, vol 19(2): 69-72.

Andersen RE, Bartlett SJ, Morgan GD, et al, 1995, Weight loss, psychological and nutritional patterns in competitive male body builders. International Journal of Eating Disorders, vol 18(1): 49-57.

Catlin DH, Hatton CK, Starcevic SH, 1998, Issues in detecting abuse of xenobiotic anabolic steroids and testosterone by analysis of athletes' urine, Clinical Chemistery, vol 43(7):1280-1208.

Hough DO, 1990, Anabolic steroids and ergogenic aids, American Family Physician, 1990, vol 41(4):1157-1164.

Maravelias C, Dona A, Stefanidou M, et al, 2005, Adverse effects of anabolic steroids in athletes. A constant threat, Toxicology Letters, vol 158(3):167-75. doi:10.1016/j.toxlet.2005.06.005.

Kam PC, Yarrow M, 2005, Anabolic steroid abuse: physiological and anaesthetic considerations, Anaesthesia, vol 60(7): 685-692. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2044.2005.04218.x.

Cerro CL, Fernandez PL. Doping. In: Lorenzo P, Ladero JM, Leza JC, Lizasoian I. Drogodependencias. Madrid: Panamericana; 1998, p.385-395.

Campos DC, Yonamine M, Alves MJNN, et al, 2005, Determinação de esteróides androgênicos anabólicos em urina por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas, Revista Brasileira de Ciências Farmacêuticas, vol 41(4): 467-476. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-93322005000400009.

Marques MAS, Pereira HMG, Neto FRA, 2003, Controle de dopagem de anabolizantes: o perfil esteroidal e suas regulações, Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte, vol 9(1):15-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1517-86922003000100004.

Sjöqvist F, Garle M, Rane A, 2008, Use of doping agents, particularly anabolic steroids, in sports and society, Lancet, vol 371(9627):1872-82. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60801-6.

Shahidi NT., 2001, A Review of the Chemistry, Biological Action, and Clinical Applications of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids, Clinical Therapics, vol 23(9): 1355-90.

Kicman AT, 2008, Pharmacology of anabolic steroids. British Journal of Pharmacology, vol 154(3):502-521. doi: 10.1038/bjp.2008.165.

Manetta MCDP, Silveira D, 2000, Uso abusivo de anabolizantes androgênicos. Psiquiatria na Prática Médica, vol 33(1):1-3.

Tagarakis CV, Bloch W, Hartmann G, et al, 2000, Anabolic steroids impair the exercise-induced growth of the cardiac capillary bed, International Journal of Sports Medicine, vol 21(6):412-418. doi:10.1055/s-2000-3835.

Tucci P, Morgese MG, Colaianna M, et al, 2012, Neurochemical consequence of steroid abuse: stanozolol-induced monoami¬nergic changes, Steroids, vol 77(3):269-75. doi: 10.1016/j.steroids.2011.12.014.

Frazer A, Hensler JG. Serotonin. In: Siegel GJ, Agranoff BW, Albers W, Fisher SK, Uhler MD, editors. Basic Neurochemistry Molecular, Cellular and Medical Aspects. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven; 1999.p. 283-08.

Pope HG, Katz DL, 1994, Psychiatric and medical effects of anabolic-androgenic steroid use. A controlled study of 160 athletes, Archives of general psychiatry, vol 51(5): 375-382.

Rabinowicz T, Petetot JM, Gartside PS, et al, 2002, Structure of the cerebral cortex in men and women, Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, vol 61(1):46-67.

Brown MW, Aggleton JP, 2001, Recognition Memory: What are the roles of perirhinal cortex and hippocampus? Nature Reviews Neuroscience, vol 2(1):51-61. doi: 10.1038/35049064.

Nelson RJ, Chiavegatto S, 2000, Aggression in knockout mice. ILAR Journal, vol 41(3):153-162.

Mandarim-de-Lacerda CA, 2003, Stereological tools in biomedical research, Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, vol75(4): 469-486.

Pakkenberg B, Gundersen HJG, 1995, Solutions to old problems in the quantitation of the central nervous system, Journal of the Neurological Sciences, vol 129:65-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-510X(95)00067-C

West MJ, 1993, New stereological method of counting neurons, Neurobiology of Aging, vol 14(4):275-285.

Freitas AC, Damiao B, Alves DM, et al, 2017, Efeitos dos anabolizantes sobre a densidade de neurônios dos núcleos da base, Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte, vol 23(3): 213-216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1517-869220172303151688.

Damião B, Souza GG, Nogueira DA, et al, 2012, Quantificação de Corpos de Neurônios em Camundongos Submetidos ao Uso de Esteroides Anabolizantes, Revista de Neurociências, vol 20(1):68-72.

Orlando R, Caruso A, Molinaro G, et al, 2007, Nanomolar concentrations of anabolic–androgenic steroids amplify excitotoxic neuronal death in mixed mouse cortical culture, Brain Research, vol 1125:21-29. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2007.06.047.

McGinnis MY, 2004, Anabolic Androgenic Steroids and Aggression Studies Using Animal Models, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol 1036:399-415.

Lumia AR, Thorner KM, McGinnis MY, 1994, Effects of chronically high doses of the anabolic androgenic steroid, testosterone, on intermale aggression and sexual behavior in male rats, Physiology and Behavior, vol55(2):331–335. https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9384(94)90142-2.

Breuer ME, McGinnis MY, Lumia AR, et al, 2001, Aggression in male rats receiving anabolic androgenic steroids: Effects of social and environmental provocation, Hormones and Behavior, vol 40(3):409–18. doi:10.1006/hbeh.2001.1706.

Farrell SF, McGinnis MY, 2003, Effects of pubertal anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) administration on reproductive and aggressive behaviors in male rats, Behavioral Neuroscience, vol 117(5):904–911. doi: 10.1037/0735-7044.117.5.904.

Franke WW, Berendonk B, 1997, Hormonal doping and androgenization of athletes; a secret program of the German Democratic Republic government, Clinical Chemistry, vol 43(7): 1262-1279.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.63018/nc.v1i1.93

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Alessandra Esteves

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.